Raynaud Phenomenon Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 23, 2020
  • Author: Heather Hansen-Dispenza, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

What is Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the difference between primary and secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

What are the diagnostic criteria for primary Raynaud phenomenon?

Which groups are at risk of developing an autoimmune disease due to Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the first line of therapy for primary and secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the pathophysiology of Raynaud phenomenon?

What are the mechanisms for the pathogenesis of primary and secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the role of vascular abnormalities in the pathogenesis of Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the role of neural abnormalities in the pathogenesis of Raynaud phenomenon?

Which intravascular abnormalities are associated with the pathogenesis of Raynaud phenomenon?

What causes primary Raynaud phenomenon?

What are the causes of secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the prevalence of primary and secondary Raynaud phenomenon in the US?

What are the racial predilections of Raynaud phenomenon?

How does the prevalence of Raynaud phenomenon vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of Raynaud phenomenon vary by age?

What is the prognosis of primary Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the prognosis of secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

What information about Raynaud phenomenon should patients receive?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of Raynaud phenomenon?

What should be noted when considering occupational history of patients with Raynaud phenomenon?

Which autoimmune disorders are associated with secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

Which infectious syndromes are associated with secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

Which neoplastic syndromes are associated with secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

What are the environmental risks for Raynaud phenomenon?

Which metabolic syndromes are associated with secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

Which hematologic syndromes are associated with secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

Which medications increase the risk for Raynaud phenomenon?

Which findings from exam of the digits suggest primary or secondary Raynaud phenomenon is suspected?

What is the role of nailfold capillary microscopy in the evaluation of secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

How is a cold challenge test used to evaluate Raynaud phenomenon?

Which physical finding is required for a diagnosis of Raynaud phenomenon?

What are the signs and symptoms of other syndromes associated with secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

DDX

Which anatomic syndromes should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Raynaud phenomenon?

Which circulatory syndromes should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Raynaud phenomenon?

Which vasospastic syndromes should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Raynaud phenomenon?

Which disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Raynaud phenomenon?

Which drugs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Raynaud phenomenon?

What are the differential diagnoses for Raynaud Phenomenon?

Workup

How is Raynaud phenomenon diagnosed?

What is the role of lab studies in the diagnosis of Raynaud phenomenon?

Which lab tests may be useful in the workup of Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of Raynaud phenomenon?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the first-line therapy for primary Raynaud phenomenon?

What are the treatment options for secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

What drugs are used in the treatment of secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

Which nondrug therapies may be used in the treatment of primary Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the role of laser therapy in the treatment of Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the role of acupuncture and biofeedback in the treatment of Raynaud phenomenon?

Which physical maneuvers may be beneficial in alleviating acute attacks of Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the role of calcium channel blockers in the treatment of Raynaud phenomenon?

Why is it important that blood pressure be monitored regularly in patients with Raynaud phenomenon?

What other medications are used to treat Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the role of topical nitroglycerin in the treatment of Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the role of SSRIs in the treatment of Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the role of botulinum toxin in the treatment of Raynaud phenomenon?

What is the role of antiplatelet agents in the treatment of Raynaud phenomenon?

How is critical digital ischemia treated in patients with secondary Raynaud phenomenon?

Which specialist consultations are required for the treatment of Raynaud phenomenon?

What dietary modifications may be beneficial in Raynaud phenomenon?

Medications

Which medications are used to treat Raynaud phenomenon?

Which medications in the drug class Neuromuscular Blocker Agents, Botulinum Toxins are used in the treatment of Raynaud Phenomenon?

Which medications in the drug class Metabolic & Endocrine, Other are used in the treatment of Raynaud Phenomenon?

Which medications in the drug class Local Anesthetics, Amides are used in the treatment of Raynaud Phenomenon?

Which medications in the drug class ARBs are used in the treatment of Raynaud Phenomenon?

Which medications in the drug class Endothelin Antagonists are used in the treatment of Raynaud Phenomenon?

Which medications in the drug class Antidepressants, SSRIs are used in the treatment of Raynaud Phenomenon?

Which medications in the drug class Phosphodiesterase-5 Enzyme Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Raynaud Phenomenon?

Which medications in the drug class Nitrates, Angina are used in the treatment of Raynaud Phenomenon?

Which medications in the drug class Prostaglandins are used in the treatment of Raynaud Phenomenon?

Which medications in the drug class Calcium channel blockers are used in the treatment of Raynaud Phenomenon?