Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 14, 2017
  • Author: Christie M Bartels, MD, MS; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

Which procedures may be used in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the typical presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the signs and symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which symptoms suggest systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in women?

Which physical findings suggest systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosed?

What are the ACR diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which lab studies are used to diagnose systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which imaging studies are used to diagnose systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) managed?

Which medications are used in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the characteristics of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosed?

Which factors have a role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the potential mechanisms for development of autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of T cells in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of circulating immune complexes in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Are the presence of autoantibodies a prognostic factor in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of serum antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Is there a genetic etiology for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which genes cause systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What role do genes play in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the recurrence rate of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in families?

Does systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have a genetic predisposition?

Which genes increase the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) may increase the risk for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which infectious agents may be etiologic factors for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the early-life risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which environmental factors may have a role in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How does pregnancy affect the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of vitamin D in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the US?

Does systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have a gender or racial predilection?

What is the global prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How does the prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) vary among different ages, genders, and races?

Is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) more common among men or women?

What is the prognosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease activity measured?

Which prognostic factors for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been identified by the EULAR?

What are the mortality rates for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What factors have contributed to a decline in the mortality rate for lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which comorbidities increase the rates of mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the common causes of late deaths in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the causes of accelerated coronary artery disease in persons with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Does race affect the prognosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What patient education should be given for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which lifestyle changes should be encouraged in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Presentation

What is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which symptoms are commonly found in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the signs and symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the most common constitutional symptom of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How is the cause of fever and fatigue differentiated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Is weight loss a symptom of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the musculoskeletal symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which hand deformities suggest systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How common is avascular necrosis (AVN) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the diagnostic cutaneous symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the characteristics of a malar rash due to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the characteristics of photosensitivity due to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the characteristics of discoid lupus in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is subacute cutaneous lupus?

Which nonspecific cutaneous symptoms may be present in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the renal symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the diagnostic neuropsychiatric symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which neuropsychiatric syndromes of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been identified by the ACR?

How does delirium present in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the possible central nervous system (CNS) complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How common are cognitive disorders in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the most common neurologic comorbidity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How are acute psychiatric episodes diagnosed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the pulmonary complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is pleuritis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the GI symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the cardiac symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the hematologic symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which physical findings suggest systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What does fever indicate in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How does the presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) differ between men and women?

What is the appearance of malar rash in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the appearance of photosensitive rash in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is discoid rash in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Are painless oral ulcers a symptom of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which cutaneous findings suggest systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which musculoskeletal findings suggest systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How does myositis and fibromyalgia manifest in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the renal symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the most common central nervous system (CNS) finding of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the cardiopulmonary symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the incidence of pericarditis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which GI findings suggest systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which ophthalmologic exams may be useful in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the updated ACR diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

DDX

How is drug-induced lupus erythematosus differentiated from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which drugs may cause drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which disorders should be included in the differential diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)?

Workup

What is the basis of a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosed?

What are the ACR diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What testing is indicated in patients with high clinical suspicion of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which standard lab tests are useful in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How is CBC count used in the diagnostic workup of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which lab tests may be used in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of inflammatory markers in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of liver testing in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of spot protein/spot creatinine ratio in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which autoantibody tests are used in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of radiography in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of chest imaging in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of echocardiography (echo) in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of cardiac MRI (CMR) in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of arthrocentesis in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of lumbar puncture in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the ACR guidelines for renal biopsy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

When is renal biopsy indicated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis?

What are the histologic findings of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of skin biopsy in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which skin biopsy findings suggest systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Treatment

What factors are considered in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the EULAR recommendations for treating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the ACR guidelines for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the role of vitamin D in the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which diet and activity modifications are effective in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What specialist consultations are necessary in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How is belimumab (Benlysta) used in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the efficacy of belimumab (Benlysta) in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Responder Index (SRI)?

How effective is belimumab (Benlysta) in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

How is rituximab (Rituxan) used in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the efficacy of rituximab (Rituxan) in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which pharmacologic agents are under investigation for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is the presentation of acute emergencies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and how are they treated?

When is IVIG indicated in the emergency department (ED) management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

When is hospitalization indicated for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

When are stress-dose steroid protocols indicated for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

When is admission to the ICU indicated for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the ACR guidelines for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis?

How does the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis vary depending on the class of disease?

How does oral mycophenolate mofetil compare to cyclophosphamide therapy in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis?

Once remission is achieved in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis, what maintenance therapy should be given?

What are the benefits of mycophenolate mofetil compared to cyclophosphamide-based regimens to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis?

When are dialysis and kidney transplantation indicated in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis?

What is the role of hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis?

When are ACE inhibitors and ARBs indicated in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis?

When is statin therapy indicated in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis?

When should patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) be evaluated for risk of thrombosis?

How does systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) affect fertility rates?

Are pregnant women at increased risk for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) flares?

How are complications minimized in pregnancies of women who have systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What are the EULAR recommendations for pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What is neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE)?

How can systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) flares be prevented?

Which medication has been shown to prevent disease flares and decrease mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Do oral contraceptives increase the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) flares?

What are the ACR guidelines for prevention of osteoporosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Are ACE inhibitors and ARBs effective in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis?

What are the EULAR vaccination recommendations for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

What long-term monitoring is required for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Do vitamin D levels correlate with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease activity?

Is vitamin D supplementation beneficial for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Is cholecalciferol supplementation an effective treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Medications

What factors should guide treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

When are high-dose steroids and other immunosuppressive agents indicated in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Which medications in the drug class Antimalarials are used in the treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)?

Which medications in the drug class NSAIDs are used in the treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)?

Which medications in the drug class DMARDS, Immunomodulators are used in the treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)?

Which medications in the drug class Rheumatologics, Other are used in the treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)?

Which medications in the drug class DMARDs, Other are used in the treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)?