Dermatomyositis Questions & Answers

Updated: Sep 26, 2018
  • Author: Alisa N Femia, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is dermatomyositis?

What are the cutaneous signs and symptoms of dermatomyositis?

What are the muscular signs and symptoms of dermatomyositis?

What are the systemic manifestations of dermatomyositis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of cutaneous dermatomyositis?

Which physical findings suggest muscle disease in dermatomyositis?

Which diagnostic tests are performed in the evaluation of dermatomyositis?

Which imaging studies may be used in the evaluation of dermatomyositis?

Which procedures may be performed in the evaluation of dermatomyositis?

What are the treatment options for dermatomyositis?

Which medications are used to manage dermatomyositis?

What are the general therapeutic measures used to manage dermatomyositis?

What is the role of surgery in the management of dermatomyositis?

What is dermatomyositis?

What are the Bohan and Peter diagnostic criteria for dermatomyositis?

What are the subsets of myositis?

What are amyopathic dermatomyositis (ADM) and postmyopathic dermatomyositis?

How is amyopathic dermatomyositis (ADM) diagnosed?

What is a possible underlying etiology for ADM or hypomyopathic dermatomyositis?

What is clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM)?

What is postmyopathic dermatomyositis?

What are the treatment options for dermatomyositis?

Which therapies for dermatomyositis are necessary in selected patients?

What is the prognosis of dermatomyositis?

What causes dermatomyositis?

What is the initial pathogenesis of dermatomyositis?

What is the pathogenic progression of dermatomyositis?

How does the pathogenesis of dermatomyositis differ from that of polymyositis?

What causes dermatomyositis?

What is the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the etiology of dermatomyositis?

What is the role of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of dermatomyositis?

Which infectious agents may trigger dermatomyositis?

Which medications may induce dermatomyositis?

What is the role of silicone breast implants in the etiology of dermatomyositis?

What is the incidence of dermatomyositis?

How does the prevalence of dermatomyositis differ among age groups and between males and females?

How frequently does dermatomyositis remit?

What are risk factor for a poor prognosis in dermatomyositis?

What is the prevalence of comorbid malignancy with dermatomyositis?

What are the most common malignancies associated with dermatomyositis?

What are the risk factors for malignancy in dermatomyositis?

What are complications of dermatomyositis?

Which cardiovascular risks are increased with dermatomyositis?

What is the increased risk of osteoporosis with dermatomyositis?

Which patients are more likely to experience a delay in dermatomyositis diagnosis?

What is the rate of mortality with dermatomyositis?

Presentation

How common is a cutaneous presentation of dermatomyositis?

How does muscle involvement manifest in dermatomyositis?

What are systemic manifestations of dermatomyositis?

In what age group is malignancy with dermatomyositis most likely?

How does the initial assessment of suspected dermatomyositis differ between children and adults?

What are the signs and symptoms of dermatomyositis in children?

What are the pathognomonic cutaneous features of dermatomyositis?

How is the heliotrope rash of dermatomyositis characterized?

How are Gottron papules in dermatomyositis characterized?

What are non-pathognomonic cutaneous features of dermatomyositis?

How is poikiloderma in dermatomyositis characterized?

What can cause sleep disturbances in dermatomyositis?

Which physical findings of the hands are characteristic of dermatomyositis?

Which cutaneous lesions in dermatomyositis do not demonstrate interface dermatitis?

What are the less common cutaneous findings of dermatomyositis?

What is a possible complication of dermatomyositis seen in children?

Which muscular findings are characteristic of dermatomyositis?

How are muscles tested in suspected dermatomyositis?

How is muscle pain and tenderness characterized in dermatomyositis?

What are systemic findings characteristic of dermatomyositis?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Dermatomyositis?

Workup

Which tests should be included in the initial evaluation of dermatomyositis?

When is assessment for malignancy indicated following a diagnosis of dermatomyositis?

How does a finding of anti-MI-2 antibodies affect the prognosis of dermatomyositis?

What is a finding of Anti–Jo-1 antibodies associated with in dermatomyositis?

What is the role of muscle enzyme measurement in the evaluation of dermatomyositis?

What is the role of antibody testing in the diagnosis and management of dermatomyositis?

Which MSAs are associated with specific features of dermatomyositis?

Which autoantibodies are associated with malignancy in dermatomyositis?

What autoantibodies are associated with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM)?

What is a finding of anti-MDA-5 antibodies associated with in juvenile dermatomyositis?

What is the role of MRI in the evaluation of dermatomyositis?

What is the role of EMG in the evaluation of dermatomyositis?

What is the role of CT scanning in the evaluation of dermatomyositis?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the evaluations of dermatomyositis?

Which tests are performed in select patients to diagnose dermatomyositis?

What is the role of muscle biopsy in the evaluation of dermatomyositis?

What is the role of skin biopsy in the diagnosis of dermatomyositis?

Which muscle biopsy results are diagnostic of dermatomyositis?

What is the histologic hallmark of dermatomyositis?

What is the Cutaneous Dermatomyositis Disease Area and Severity Index (CDASI) tool and how is it used?

Treatment

What is the approach to treatment of dermatomyositis?

What are the treatment options for dermatomyositis?

When is surgery indicated in the treatment of dermatomyositis?

Which groups are at highest risk for calcinosis in dermatomyositis?

What is the role of physical therapy in the management of dermatomyositis?

How are the gastric manifestations of dermatomyositis managed?

Which medications are used to treat muscle disease in dermatomyositis?

What are the first line glucocorticoid-sparing agents for treatment of dermatomyositis?

Which medications are used to treat refractory dermatomyositis?

What is the role of rituximab in the treatment of dermatomyositis?

Which factors predict clinical improvement in dermatomyositis treated with rituximab?

What is the role of tacrolimus in the treatment of dermatomyositis?

What are the challenges in treating cutaneous disease of dermatomyositis?

What are the treatment options for photosensitivity in dermatomyositis?

What are possible adverse effects of antimalarial medications used to treat dermatomyositis?

What is first-line systemic therapy for dermatomyositis?

What is the role of immunosuppressive medications in the treatment of dermatomyositis?

What is the role of IV immune globulin (IVIG) in the treatment of dermatomyositis?

What is the efficacy of rituximab for the treatment of dermatomyositis?

What is calcinosis in dermatomyositis?

Which medications are used to treat calcinosis in dermatomyositis?

When is surgery indicated for treatment of calcinosis in dermatomyositis?

Which dietary modifications may be beneficial in the management of dermatomyositis?

What is the role of exercise in the management of dermatomyositis?

What types of exercise are beneficial for dermatomyositis?

What is the efficacy of sustained exercise for management of dermatomyositis?

Which specialist consultations may be useful in the diagnosis and management of dermatomyositis?

What long-term monitoring is needed for management of dermatomyositis?

How is dermatomyositis severity assessed?

How should the risk of malignancy be monitored in dermatomyositis?

What is the basis for testing selection for monitoring dermatomyositis?

Which articles are good references for information on dermatomyositis?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for dermatomyositis?

What is the first-line therapy for muscle disease in dermatomyositis?

What medications may be useful in treating cutaneous disease of dermatomyositis?

What are the alternatives to steroids for the treatment of dermatomyositis?

What is the role of biologic therapies for treatment of dermatomyositis?

What is the efficacy of etanercept in the treatment of dermatomyositis?

What is the role of infliximab in the treatment of dermatomyositis?

What is the role of anti–tumor necrosis factor therapies in the treatment of dermatomyositis?

Which medications in the drug class Antimalarials are used in the treatment of Dermatomyositis?

Which medications in the drug class Calcium Metabolism Modifiers are used in the treatment of Dermatomyositis?

Which medications in the drug class Calcium Channel Blockers are used in the treatment of Dermatomyositis?

Which medications in the drug class Immune Globulins are used in the treatment of Dermatomyositis?

Which medications in the drug class Immunosuppressive Agents are used in the treatment of Dermatomyositis?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Dermatomyositis?

Which medications in the drug class Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs are used in the treatment of Dermatomyositis?