Ankylosing Spondylitis and Undifferentiated Spondyloarthropathy Questions & Answers

Updated: Sep 03, 2019
  • Author: Lawrence H Brent, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

What are the signs and symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What are some signs and symptoms of undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

How is ankylosing spondylitis (AS) diagnosed?

What is the role of radiography in the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

What is the role of MRI and CT scanning in the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

Which medications are used in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Which surgical procedures are performed in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What is the ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What is the pathophysiology of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

What is the disease progression of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What causes ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Which genes have been excluded in the etiology of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Which immunologic mechanisms are involved in the etiology of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Which environmental factors are involved in the etiology of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What is prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

How does the prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA) vary by age?

How does the prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA) vary by sex?

What are the racial predilections for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

What is the prognosis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What are the causes of disability in ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What is the prognosis of undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

What should be included in patient education about ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

Presentation

Which history findings suggest ankylosing spondylitis (AS))?

What are the general symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

How is inflammatory back pain affect characterized in ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What is peripheral enthesitis and how does it progress in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

Which sites are involved in peripheral enthesitis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

How are joints affected by peripheral enthesitis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

Which physical findings suggest ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

How should the physical exam be focused in the evaluation of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Which results of spine exam suggest ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What are the physical findings of peripheral entheses in ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What are the extra-articular manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What is the significance of a finding of uveitis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

How is uveitis characterized in ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Which cardiovascular findings suggest ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Which pulmonary findings suggest ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Which renal findings suggest ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Which neurologic findings suggest ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Which GI findings suggest ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What are the findings of metabolic bone disease suggestive of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What is juvenile ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Which physical findings suggest juvenile ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What is the clinical presentation of undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

How is undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA) diagnosed?

What are complications that of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

How do fractures affect patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

How are fractures screened for in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

What is the presentation of spondylodiscitis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

How is spondylodiscitis screened for in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

DDX

What are the diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What are the New York diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

How is spondyloarthropathy (SpA) classified?

What are the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) diagnostic criteria for axial spondyloarthropathy (SpA)?

What are the features of axial spondyloarthropathy (SpA)?

What are the features of peripheral spondyloarthropathy (SpA)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Ankylosing Spondylitis and Undifferentiated Spondyloarthropathy?

Workup

What are the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) guidelines for the use of imaging in the diagnosis and management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

What is the role of lab studies in the workup of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

What is the role of radiography in the diagnosis and ongoing evaluation of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

Which findings on radiography are diagnostic of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What are the early radiographic signs of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What are the radiographic findings of the pelvis and limbs suggestive of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What is the role of MRI and CT scanning in the workup of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

How is MRI and CT scanning beneficial in the evaluation of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in patients with fused spines?

What is the role of MRI and CT scanning in the evaluation of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in patients with bowel or bladder dysfunction?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

What is the role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

What is the role of sulfasalazine in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

What is the role of TNF-? antagonists in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

What are the risks and benefits of TNF-? antagonists for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

What is the role of interleukin inhibitorsi n the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

What is the role of corticosteroids in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

Which drugs lack evidence of effectiveness in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

Which organization has issued treatment guidelines for ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What are the American College of Rheumatology treatment guidelines for adults with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What are the American College of Rheumatology treatment guidelines for active ankylosing spondylitis (AS) despite treatment with NSAIDs?

What are the American College of Rheumatology treatment guidelines for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease?

What are the American College of Rheumatology treatment guidelines for stable ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

How is uveitis treated in ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

How is disease activity and treatment response evaluated in ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Which tools are used to measure ankylosing spondylitis (AS) disease activity?

What are the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) response criteria?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What is the role of vertebral osteotomy in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What is the role of fracture stabilization in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What is the role of joint replacement in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

What is the role of physical therapy and exercise in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?

Which specialist consultations are helpful in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA)?

Which medications in the drug class Immunosuppressants are used in the treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis and Undifferentiated Spondyloarthropathy?

Which medications in the drug class DMARDs, TNF Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis and Undifferentiated Spondyloarthropathy?

Which medications in the drug class Interleukin Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis and Undifferentiated Spondyloarthropathy?

Which medications in the drug class 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Derivatives are used in the treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis and Undifferentiated Spondyloarthropathy?

Which medications in the drug class Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs are used in the treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis and Undifferentiated Spondyloarthropathy?