Acute Rheumatic Fever

Updated: Sep 22, 2022
  • Author: Robert J Meador, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Practice Essentials

Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a sequela of streptococcal infection—typically following 2 to 3 weeks after group A streptococcal pharyngitis—that occurs most commonly in children and has rheumatologic, cardiac, and neurologic manifestations. [1, 2] The incidence of ARF has declined in most developed countries, and many physicians have little or no practical experience with the diagnosis and management of this condition. Occasional outbreaks in the United States make complacency a threat to public health.

Diagnosis rests on a combination of clinical manifestations that can develop in relation to group A streptococcal pharyngitis. [3] These include chorea, carditis, subcutaneous nodules, erythema marginatum, and migratory polyarthritis. (See the image below.) Because the inciting infection is completely treatable (see Treatment), attention has been refocused on prevention.

Clinical manifestations and time course of acute r Clinical manifestations and time course of acute rheumatic fever.


Although the inciting bacterial agent is well known, susceptibility factors remain unclear. The location of the streptococcal infection seems to play an important role. The clinical syndrome typically follows a streptococcal pharyngitis, but streptococcal cellulitis has never been implicated.

The earliest and most common feature is a painful migratory arthritis, which is present in approximately 80% of patients. Large joints such as knees, ankles, elbows, or shoulders are typically affected. Sydenham chorea was once a common late-onset clinical manifestation but is now rare. [4] Carditis (with progressive congestive heart failure, a new murmur, or pericarditis) may be the presenting sign of unrecognized past episodes and is the most lethal manifestation.

Genetics may contribute, as evidenced by an increase in family incidence. No significant association with class-I human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) has been found, but an increase in class-II HLA antigens DR2 and DR4 has been found in black and white patients, respectively. [5] Evidence suggests that elevated immune-complex levels in blood samples from patients with ARF are associated with HLA-B5. [6]

A meta-analysis of 13 studies suggested that carriage of the HLA-DRB1*07 allele increases susceptibility to ARF/rheumatic heart disease, while carriage of the HLA-DRB1*15 allele protects against it. The frequency of the HLA-DRB1*07 allele was significantly higher in patients compared with controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.68, P< 0.0001), and the frequency of the HLA-DRB1*15 allele was significantly lower (OR = 0.60, P = 0.03). [7]

Meta-analyses of candidate gene studies suggest that theTGF-β1 [rs1800469] and IL-1β [rs2853550] single-nucleotide polymorphisms contribute to susceptibility to rheumatic heart disease. [8]

In a study of 15 patients with rheumatic heart disease and a control group of 10 patients who had been exposed to group A streptococci but did not develop either acute rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease, 13 genes were differentially expressed in the same direction (predominantly decreased) between the two groups. Seven of those were immune response genes involved in cytotoxicity, chemotaxis, and apoptosis. The researchers concluded that the high proportion of differentially expressed apoptotic and immune response genes supports a model of autoimmune and cytokine dysregulation in ARF. [9]




Although the mechanism by which streptococcal organisms cause disease is not entirely clear, overwhelming epidemiologic evidence suggests that ARF is caused by streptococcal infection, and recurrences can be prevented with prophylaxis.

Strains of group A streptococci that are heavily encapsulated and rich in M protein (signifying virulence in streptococcal strains) seem to be most likely to result in infection.

Group A Streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes) is thought to cause the myriad of clinical diseases in which the host's immunologic response to bacterial antigens cross-react with various target organs in the body, resulting in molecular mimicry. In fact, autoantibodies reactive against the heart have been found in patients with rheumatic carditis. The antibody can cross-react with brain and cardiac antigens, and immune complexes are present in the serum. The problem has been the uncertainty of whether these antibodies are the cause or result of myocardial tissue injury.

A study from New Zealand found a strong association between scabies infestation and ARF. Thornley et al documented that children who had been diagnosed with scabies were 23 times more likely to develop ARF or chronic rheumatic heart disease, compared with children who had no scabies diagnosis. Even after adjustment for confounders in a Cox model, the association remained strong, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 8.98 (95% confidence interval: 6.33-20.2). [10] Subsequently, Thornley et al reported that permethrin prescribing, as an indicator of scabies, is strongly associated with the incidence of ARF. [11]



United States

The incidence of an acute rheumatic episode following streptococcal pharyngitis is 0.5-3%. The peak age is 6-20 years. Although the incidence of ARF has steadily declined, the mortality rate has declined even more steeply. Credit can be attributed to improved sanitation and antibiotic therapy. Several sporadic outbreaks in the United States could not be blamed directly on poor living conditions. New virulent strains are the best explanation.

In Hawaii, the incidence of ARF has remained several times higher than in the continental United States, particularly among ethnic Polynesians. Unusual group A streptococci emm types that are uncommon in the continental United States appear to play a significant role in the epidemiology of ARF in Hawaii. [12]


Worldwide, as many as 20 million new cases of ARF occur each year. The introduction of antibiotics has been associated with a rapid worldwide decline in the incidence of ARF. Currently, the incidence is 0.23-1.88 patients per 100,000 population. From 1862-1962, the incidence per 100,000 population declined from 250 patients to 100 patients, primarily in teenagers.

Most major outbreaks occur under conditions of impoverished overcrowding where access to antibiotics is limited. Rheumatic heart disease accounts for 25-50% of all cardiac admissions internationally. Rates of rheumatic heart disease and releated deaths are particularly high in Oceania, South Asia, and central sub-Saharan Africa. [13] Some areas of South America are also strongly affected. [14]

Rates of ARF are exceptionally high in natives of Polynesian ancestry in Hawaiian and Maori populations. For example, in a study from a New Zealand district, the ethnicity of ARF patients was 85% Maori and 10% Pacific. Although the annual incidence of ARF was 3.1 per 100,000 population, in Maori children aged 5-14 years the incidence was 46.1 per 100,000 population. Almost three-quarters of all patients lived in severely socioeconomically deprived areas. [15] In Australia, the age-standardized first-ever rates of ARF were 71.9 per 100,000 population for indigenous populations, compared with 0.60 per 100,000 for non-indigenous populations. [16]

In the last decade, an increase in the incidence of ARF was observed in Slovenia, in south-central Europe. From 2008 through 2014, the estimated annual incidence of ARF was 1.25 cases per 100,000 children. [17]

A study of pediatric patients (age 0-17 years) in Lombardy, Italy who were hospitalized with the diagnosis of ARF from 2014 to 2016 found that the annual hospitalization rate was 4.24 cases per 100,000 children. A seasonal trend was evident, with fewer cases in the autumn and a peak in the spring. [18]

Racial, Sexual, and Age-related Demographics

No general clear-cut sex predilection for ARF has been reported, but certain of its manifestations seem to be sex variable. For example, chorea and tight mitral stenosis occur predominantly in females, while aortic stenosis develops more often in males.

The initial attack of ARF occurs most frequently in persons aged 5-15 years and rarely occurs in persons older than 30 years. [19]  The disease may cluster in families. In some countries, a shift into older groups may be a trend.



After a first attack of ARF, the course is highly variable and unpredictable. Approximately 90% of episodes last less than 3 months. Only a minority persist longer, in the form of unremitting rheumatic carditis or prolonged chorea. The outcome of carditis is likely to be more severe in patients with pre-existing heart disease. Carditis resolves without sequelae in 65-75% of patients.  

In an Australian study, recurrence of ARF occurred most often in the first year after initial ARF episode (incidence 3.7 per 100 person-years), but low-level risk persisted for more than 10 years. Risk of progression to rheumatic heart disease was also highest in the first year (incidence 35.9%), almost 10 times higher than that of ARF recurrence. [20]

Mortality rates are steadily improving because of better sanitation and health care. The current pattern of morbidity is difficult to measure because the first attack of rheumatic fever follows an unpredictable course. 

Carditis causes the most severe clinical manifestation because heart valves can be permanently damaged. The disorder also can involve the pericardium, myocardium, and the free borders of valve cusps. Death or total disability may occur years after the initial presentation of carditis. Worldwide, the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease may range from 33 to 78 million cases, and deaths from rheumatic heart disease may range from 275,000 to 1.4 million deaths each year. [21]


Patient Education

Patients should be educated to seek medical attention upon the first signs of pharyngitis. Once the disease is established, patients should be educated regarding benefits and risks of compliance with their medical regimen, which may be protracted. For patient education information, see Rheumatic Fever.