Antiphospholipid Syndrome Questions & Answers

Updated: Sep 30, 2018
  • Author: Suneel Movva, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What are the subtypes of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What are the treatment options for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is the "two-hit" theory of the pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is the pathophysiology of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is the role of complement activation in the pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

Which organ systems can be affected by antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is a major target organ in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is the prevalence of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is the mortality and morbidity of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What are the racial predilections of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

How does the prevalence of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) vary by age?

Presentation

How is antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) diagnosed?

What are the clinical criteria for diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What are the lab criteria for diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

Which clinical features of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are not included in the diagnostic criteria?

What history suggests antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What are the cutaneous manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

Which venous thrombosis-related findings are characteristic of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

Which arterial thrombosis-related findings are characteristic of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What causes antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What diseases and conditions are associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Antiphospholipid Syndrome?

Workup

What is the role of lab tests in the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is the role of aCL antibody testing in the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

Which lab tests may be helpful in the workup of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is the prevalence of thrombocytopenia in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What antinuclear antibody levels may be present in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

Which antibody testing may be useful in the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is the role of Doppler ultrasound in the workup of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is the role of two-dimensional echocardiography findings in the workup of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What are histologic findings characteristic of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

Treatment

When is inpatient evaluation indicated for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What are the treatment options for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

When is prophylactic therapy indicated for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

How is thrombosis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) treated?

What are the guidelines for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) prophylaxis during pregnancy?

What are the treatment options for catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

When is surgical care indicated in the treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

Which specialist consultations are needed for the treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

Medications

What are considerations before initiation of anticoagulant prophylaxis for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What are the options for administration of heparin therapy for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is the role of hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What are the medications used to treat catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is the indication for statins for the treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is the role of rituximab in the treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is the role of eculizumab in the treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

Which medications in the drug class Immunomodulatory therapy agents are used in the treatment of Antiphospholipid Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Antiphospholipid Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Immunosuppressive agents are used in the treatment of Antiphospholipid Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Antimalarials are used in the treatment of Antiphospholipid Syndrome?

Which medications in the drug class Anticoagulants are used in the treatment of Antiphospholipid Syndrome?

Follow-up

What monitoring is needed following treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

Which medications are used in the treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

When is transfer indicated for patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

How is antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) prevented?

What are possible complications of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What is the prognosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

What information about antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) should patients receive?