Hydronephrosis and Hydroureter Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 16, 2020
  • Author: Dennis G Lusaya, MD; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What is the pathophysiology of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What is the prevalence of hydronephrosis and hydroureter in the US?

What is the morbidity of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What are the sexual predilections of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What is the prevalence and causes of hydronephrosis and hydroureter by age?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings suggest hydronephrosis and hydroureter in adults?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pediatric hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

Which physical findings are characteristic of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

Which physical findings are characteristic of hydronephrosis and hydroureter in children?

How are the causes of hydronephrosis and hydroureter classified?

What are the intrinsic ureter-level causes of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What are the functional ureter-level causes of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What are the extrinsic ureter-level causes of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What are the intrinsic bladder-level causes of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What are the functional bladder-level causes of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What are the extrinsic bladder-level causes of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What are the intrinsic urethra-level causes of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What are the extrinsic urethra-level causes of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

DDX

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of adults with hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What is the role of intravenous pyelography (IVP) in the workup of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What is the MRI in the workup of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

How is hydronephrosis without obstruction or with asymptomatic obstruction evaluated?

What is the role of diuretic renography in the workup of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

How is hydronephrosis severity in infants graded?

How is antenatal hydronephrosis diagnosed?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of postnatal hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What is the role of pyelography in the workup of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

Treatment

How are hydronephrosis and hydroureter treated in adult?

What is the basis for treatment selection for hydronephrosis and hydroureter in infants?

How is bilateral antenatal hydronephrosis treated?

How is severe unilateral antenatal hydronephrosis treated?

How is mild or moderate unilateral antenatal hydronephrosis treated?

What is the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in the treatment of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What is the role of fetal surgery in the treatment of antenatal hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

Follow-up

What is included in the long-term monitoring of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What is included in the inpatient care of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?

What are the possible complications of hydronephrosis and hydroureter?