Nephrolithiasis Questions & Answers

Updated: Jun 21, 2018
  • Author: Chirag N Dave, MD; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is nephrolithiasis?

What are the signs and symptoms of nephrolithiasis?

How is pain characterized in nephrolithiasis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of nephrolithiasis?

Which lab tests are performed in the workup of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of imaging studies in the evaluation of nephrolithiasis?

How is nephrolithiasis treated?

How is renal colic treated in nephrolithiasis?

How are stones prevented in nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is nephrolithiasis?

What is the anatomy of the ureter relevant to nephrolithiasis?

What is the pathophysiology of stone formation in nephrolithiasis?

What is the pathophysiology renal colic in nephrolithiasis?

What causes nephrolithiasis?

What are the chemical types of calculi in nephrolithiasis?

What causes calcium stones in nephrolithiasis?

What causes struvite stones in nephrolithiasis?

What causes uric acid stones in nephrolithiasis?

What causes cystine stones in nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of medications in the etiology of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of nephrolithiasis?

What is the prevalence of nephrolithiasis in the US?

What is the global prevalence of nephrolithiasis?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of nephrolithiasis?

What are the sexual predilections of nephrolithiasis?

What are the racial predilections of nephrolithiasis?

What is the prognosis of nephrolithiasis?

What should be included in patient education about nephrolithiasis?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of nephrolithiasis?

What is the focus of clinical history in the evaluation of nephrolithiasis?

How is pain characterized in nephrolithiasis?

What are the phases of acute renal colic in nephrolithiasis?

What are the common GI symptoms of nephrolithiasis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of nephrolithiasis?

What is the morbidity associated with nephrolithiasis?

What are the possible complications of nephrolithiasis?

DDX

What is the STONE score and how is used in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

How is nephrolithiasis diagnosed?

How is abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) differentiated from nephrolithiasis?

How frequently is nephrolithiasis misdiagnosed as abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of nephrolithiasis?

What are the differential diagnoses for Nephrolithiasis?

Workup

What is the role of imaging in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

When should nephrolithiasis be considered in children and elderly patients?

What are the EAU guidelines for the evaluation of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of urinalysis in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of complete blood count (CBC) in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

How is renal function assessed in the evaluation of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of 24-hour urine profile in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What are the calcium, oxalate and uric acid findings characteristic of nephrolithiasis?

How is hypercalciuria treated in nephrolithiasis?

How is hyperoxaluria treated in nephrolithiasis?

How is hyperuricosuria treated in nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of sodium and phosphorus measurement in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of citrate and magnesium measurement in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of creatinine measurement in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of total urine volume in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of pH studies in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of flat plate radiography in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of KUB radiography in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

When is combined radiography and ultrasonography indicated for the evaluation of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of Doppler ultrasonography in the evaluation of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of IV pyelography (urography) in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What are the risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) during the workup for nephrolithiasis?

How is medullary sponge kidney (MSK) diagnosed during the workup for nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of CT scanning in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What are the advantages CT scanning in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What are the disadvantages of CT scanning in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of CT scanning in the differentiation of phleboliths from urinary tract stones in nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of CT scanning in the assessment of stone density, composition and size during the evaluation of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of CT scanning in identifying secondary signs of obstruction in nephrolithiasis?

What are the recommendations for the use of CT scanning in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

How does CT scanning compare to IV pyelography (IVP) in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of plain renal tomography in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of retrograde pyelography in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of nuclear renal scanning in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis?

Treatment

How is nephrolithiasis treated?

What are the guidelines for the conservative management of nephrolithiasis?

When is inpatient care indicated for nephrolithiasis?

What is infected hydronephrosis in nephrolithiasis and how is it managed?

How are large stones in nephrolithiasis treated?

What is the initial emergency care for renal colic in nephrolithiasis?

How is pain managed during the emergent treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of antiemetic therapy in the emergency treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of antidiuretic therapy in the emergency treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of antibiotic therapy in the emergency treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of active medical expulsive therapy (MET) in the emergency treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the efficacy of MET in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

How is MET administered for the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of IV hydration in the emergency treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of urine straining in the emergency treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of anatrophic nephrostolithotomy in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

When is surgery indicated for the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

According to AUA/Endourological Society guidelines, when is surgery recommended for the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

When is surgical intervention contraindicated for the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

Which surgical interventions are used in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What are the guidelines for the surgical treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of stent placement in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of percutaneous nephrostomy in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the efficacy of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of ureteroscopy in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

When is stent placement omitted following ureteroscopy for nephrolithiasis?

What are the disadvantages of ureteroscopy in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of percutaneous nephrostolithotomy in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of open nephrostomy in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of invasive therapy for nephrolithiasis during pregnancy?

What is the role of a dual wave handheld lithotripter in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of a StoneBreaker in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of medical therapy in the dissolution of calculi in nephrolithiasis?

What is the role of chemoprophylaxis in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

How is nephrolithiasis prevented?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with nephrolithiasis?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of nephrolithiasis?

What is included in postsurgical care and follow-up of patients with nephrolithiasis?

How is ongoing medical therapy for nephrolithiasis monitored?

Guidelines

Which organizations have issued nephrolithiasis guidelines?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of nephrolithiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Nephrolithiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Antiemetics are used in the treatment of Nephrolithiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Alkalinizing Agents, Oral are used in the treatment of Nephrolithiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Nephrolithiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Alpha Blockers, Antihypertensives are used in the treatment of Nephrolithiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Calcium Channel Blockers are used in the treatment of Nephrolithiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Nephrolithiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Analgesics, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used in the treatment of Nephrolithiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Analgesics, Miscellaneous are used in the treatment of Nephrolithiasis?

Which medications in the drug class Analgesics, Narcotic are used in the treatment of Nephrolithiasis?