Trigonitis Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Aug 24, 2020
  • Author: Wellman W Cheung, MD, FACS; Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD, FACS  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

Trigonitis must be differentiated from keratinizing squamous metaplasia (leukoplakia), as the latter is generally considered a premalignant lesion that can progress to squamous cell carcinoma in as many as 20% of cases. Leukoplakia and trigonitis have many similar features, including risk factors and appearance. What distinguishes leukoplakia from trigonitis is its histology, which is characterized by downward growth of rete pegs (acanthosis), cellular atypia, and dysplasia. [16]  See the image below.

Keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder. Keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder.

Other problems to be considered in the differential diagnosis of trigonitis include the following:

  • Bladder cancer
  • Bladder stone
  • Bladder trauma
  • Cystitis
  • Interstitial cystitis
  • Pelvic pain syndrome

Differential Diagnoses