Struvite and Staghorn Calculi Questions & Answers

Updated: Jan 02, 2019
  • Author: Maxwell Meng, MD; Chief Editor: Bradley Fields Schwartz, DO, FACS  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

What are struvite and staghorn calculi?

When were struvite and staghorn calculi first identified?

What is the role of urinary tract infection in the etiology of struvite and staghorn calculi?

What is the prevalence of struvite and staghorn calculi?

Which gram-positive bacteria cause struvite and staghorn calculi?

Which gram-negative bacteria cause struvite and staghorn calculi?

Which yeasts cause struvite and staghorn calculi?

What is the pathophysiology of struvite and staghorn calculi?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of struvite and staghorn calculi?

When is surgery indicated for the treatment of struvite and staghorn calculi?

What is the renal anatomy relevant to struvite and staghorn calculi?

What are the anatomic principles of percutaneous tube placement for removal of struvite and staghorn calculi?

What are contraindications for surgical removal of struvite and staghorn calculi?

Workup

What is the role of lab tests in the preoperative workup of struvite and staghorn calculi?

What is the role of imaging studies in the preoperative workup of struvite and staghorn calculi?

Treatment

How are struvite and staghorn calculi treated?

What is the role of urease inhibitors in the treatment of struvite and staghorn calculi?

What is the role of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of struvite and staghorn calculi?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of struvite and staghorn calculi?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of struvite and staghorn calculi?

What is the role of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in the treatment of struvite and staghorn calculi?

What is the role of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the treatment of struvite and staghorn calculi?

What is the role of combined percutaneous nephroscopy and retrograde intrarenal surgery in the treatment of struvite and staghorn calculi?

What are the general surgical principles for struvite and staghorn calculi removal?

What are the AUA/ES guidelines on use of PNL for struvite and staghorn calculi treatment?

When is an open procedure indicated for removal of struvite and staghorn calculi?

When is placement of a PCN tube or ureteral stent indicated in the treatment of struvite and staghorn calculi?

How is surgery performed for the removal of struvite and staghorn calculi?

What is included in the postoperative monitoring following struvite and staghorn calculi removal?

What is included in long-term monitoring following struvite and staghorn calculi removal?

What are the possible complications of struvite and staghorn calculi treatment?

What is the efficacy of struvite and staghorn calculi surgery?

Which aspects of struvite and staghorn calculi treatment require further study?

Guidelines

What are the AUA/ES guidelines on the surgical management of struvite and staghorn calculi?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of struvite and staghorn calculi?

Which medications in the drug class Genitourinary Irrigants are used in the treatment of Struvite and Staghorn Calculi?

Which medications in the drug class Urease Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Struvite and Staghorn Calculi?