Urethral Caruncle Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Oct 03, 2022
  • Author: Kamran P Sajadi, MD; Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD, FACS  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

 Urethral prolapse is similar in appearance to urethral caruncle, but is circumferential while caruncles are focal. Urethral prolapse may occur in prepubescent girls or postmenopausal women, whereas caruncles are seen almost exclusively in the latter. 

Reports of neoplastic lesions mimicking urethral caruncles include the following:

  • Condyloma acuminatum [9]
  • Primary malignant melanoma of the urethra [4, 10]
  • Urethral lymphoma [11] [12]

Intraepithelial squamous cell carcinoma arising within a urethral caruncle has been reported in two patients. [13]

Urethral leiomyoma masquerading as urethral caruncle have been reported. [14]  In addition, urethral caruncles may contain atypical stromal cells, and these pseudoneoplastic lesions must be differentiated from lymphoma or sarcoma. [15]

Cases of urethral tuberculosis [16, 17]  and periurethral colonic-type polyp resembling urethral caruncle have rarely been reported. [18, 19]

A rare case of extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) initially diagnosed as a urethral caruncle has been reported. [20]

Differential Diagnoses