Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 27, 2018
  • Author: Emilie Katherine Johnson, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD, FACS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

Which factors increase the risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

Why is the risk of serious complications of urinary tract infection (UTI) increased during pregnancy?

What are the treatment options for urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the economic burden of urinary tract infection (UTI)?

Where can patient education information be found regarding urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

How are urinary tract infections (UTIs) defined?

What risks are increased with asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy?

What are the signs and symptoms of acute cystitis during pregnancy?

What are the signa and symptoms of acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy?

What is the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of calyceal and ureteral dilation in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of bladder pressure in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI)?

What is the role of glucose in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI)?

What is the role of amino acids in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

Which pathogens cause urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

Which pathogens are clinically significant in urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of urea-splitting bacteria in the etiology of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

Why should all pregnancy women be screened for group B beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GBS) colonization?

What is the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) following cesarean delivery?

How should women with orthotopic continent urinary diversion be managed during pregnancy?

What is the frequency of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy in the US?

Why are urinary tract infections (UTIs) more common in women than in men?

How does the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) differ between pregnant and nonpregnant women in the US?

What are the risk factors for bacteriuria during pregnancy?

Why is the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy thought to be higher among white women?

What is the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant Israeli women?

How does age affect the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

How does the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) vary among racial and ethnic groups?

What is the prognosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

How does maternal urinary tract infection (UTI) affect the fetus?

What is the morbidity of untreated upper urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

How does preeclampsia effect the risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

Presentation

Which factors affect the presentation of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the most significant symptom of cystitis in pregnant women?

What are the signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis during pregnancy?

How does the duration of pregnancy affect the physical findings of urinary tract infection (UTI)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy?

When is pelvic exam indicated to evaluate suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of pyelonephritis during pregnancy?

When is fetal heart rate assessed in the physical exam of maternal urinary tract infection (UTI)?

What are possible complications of urinary tract infection (UTI)?

What causes pulmonary injury in pregnant women with urinary tract infection (UTI)?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

Which disorders may be considered in the differential diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI)?

How are vaginal infections differentiated from urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pregnant women?

Workup

Which lab studies are performed in the workup of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

Which imaging studies are performed in the workup of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of blood tests in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of urine testing in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the technique for urine collection in the evaluation of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

When should a catheterized specimen be collected for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

How are urine specimens evaluated in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of urine culture in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI)?

How are urinary tract infections (UTIs) diagnosed during pregnancy?

How are culture results used for the management of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

Which urinalysis results suggest urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of dipstick testing in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of urine cytology in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of an antistreptolysin-O (ASO) titer measurement in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

How is a sulfosalicylic acid (SSA) test used for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of renal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

How are urolithiasis and pyelonephritis differentiated in pregnancy?

How is urolithiasis managed during pregnancy?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the management of urolithiasis during pregnancy?

What are the limits for ionizing radiation in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What are the findings on renal ultrasonography suggestive of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What are the histologic findings characteristic of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

Treatment

What is the focus of acute care of urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant women?

What is included in the emergency department (ED) care of pregnant women with urinary tract infection (UTI)?

Which behavioral measures are used in the management of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What are oral regimens used for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of fosfomycin in the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the optimal duration of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

How is treatment success determined for urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What are the treatment options for pyelonephritis in pregnant patients?

How is fever managed in pregnant patients with pyelonephritis?

What are delivery risks associated with pyelonephritis during pregnancy?

What are the differences in efficacy between outpatient and inpatient care of pyelonephritis during pregnancy?

Which patients should be considered for outpatient treatment of pyelonephritis during pregnancy?

What is the basis for antibiotic selection for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the significance of institution-specific drug resistances in the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

Which physiologic changes during pregnancy influence antibiotic selection for urinary tract infection (UTI)?

Which antibiotics are contraindicated for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of fluoroquinolones in the management of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What are the risks of using fluoroquinolones to treat urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of nitrofurantoin in the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of macrolides in the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

When is surgical care indicated for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

Which factors may aid in establishing the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

What is the role of a retrograde stent in the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy?

During which trimester is surgery performed for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI)?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for urinary tract infection (UTI)?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy?