Superficial Thrombophlebitis Questions & Answers

Updated: Apr 17, 2019
  • Author: Khanjan H Nagarsheth, MD, MBA; Chief Editor: Vincent Lopez Rowe, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is superficial thrombophlebitis?

Where does superficial thrombophlebitis usually occur?

What is the prognosis of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What causes superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the presentation of superficial thrombophlebitis?

Where are the sites of development in superficial thrombophlebitis?

How is superficial thrombophlebitis diagnosed?

What are the goals of treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is septic thrombophlebitis?

What is the pathophysiology of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What are the risk factors for superficial thrombophlebitis?

Does pregnancy increase the risk for developing superficial thrombophlebitis?

Is estrogen therapy a risk factor for superficial thrombophlebitis?

What are the risk factors for venous thromboembolic disease?

How can injury cause superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the most common cause of superficial thrombophlebitis?

Can sclerotherapy for varicose veins cause superficial thrombophlebitis?

Where does superficial thrombophlebitis frequently occur?

How does superficial thrombophlebitis develop in a varicose vein?

What is infection-related thrombophlebitis?

Can infection cause superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is migratory thrombophlebitis (thrombophlebitis migrans)?

What is Mondor disease?

What is the etiology of Mondor disease and when is it more likely to occur?

What is the epidemiology of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the prognosis of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What education should be given to patients with superficial thrombophlebitis?

Presentation

What history findings suggest superficial thrombophlebitis?

What history should be obtained for suspected traumatic thrombophlebitis?

What varicose vein history should be obtained when superficial thrombophlebitis is suspected?

What hemorrhoid history should be obtained when superficial thrombophlebitis is suspected?

What are the signs and symptoms of migratory thrombophlebitis (thrombophlebitis migrans)?

What are physical findings suggestive of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What are the signs of chronic venous stasis in superficial thrombophlebitis?

What are palpation findings suggestive of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What are possible complications of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What are complications of suppurative phlebitis?

What is the risk for mortality from superficial thrombophlebitis?

How do complications arise in superficial thrombophlebitis?

DDX

What conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of superficial thrombophlebitis?

Why are chest symptoms in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis cause for concern?

Which life-threatening condition must be differentiated from superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is a superficial femoral vein?

Workup

What are the key factors evaluated in superficial thrombophlebitis?

When should patients with superficial thrombophlebitis be evaluated for a hypercoagulable state?

What further evaluation is indicated for migratory thrombophlebitis (thrombophlebitis migrans)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the evaluation of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the role of anatomic imaging in the evaluation of superficial thrombophlebitis?

Which histologic findings suggest superficial thrombophlebitis?

Which risk factors for superficial thrombophlebitis can be identified with lab testing?

Which lab studies help identify hypercoagulable states in superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the role of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in the evaluation of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What do low or elevated WBC count or chronic venous insufficiency suggest in the evaluation of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the role of D-dimer in the evaluation of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the role of venography in the evaluation of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the role of invasive contrast venography in the evaluation of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the role of magnetic resonance venography (MRV) in the evaluation of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is role of ultrasonography in the evaluation of superficial thrombophlebitis?

When is duplex ultrasonography indicated for the evaluation and management of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the role of compression ultrasonography in patients with symptomatic superficial thrombophlebitis?

Are women at increased risk for superficial thrombophlebitis during pregnancy?

What is the diagnostic approach for pregnant patients with suspected superficial thrombophlebitis?

Treatment

What is the basis for treatment selection in superficial venous thrombosis?

When are analgesics sufficient for the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?

How should more severe superficial thrombophlebitis be treated?

When are anticoagulants indicated for the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?

How is thrombosis of a hemorrhoid treated?

When are compression stockings indicated in the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the efficacy of gradient compression stockings for the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the aim of treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis?

Is fondaparinux effective for treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis and prevention of complications?

What are the benefits of fondaparinux for treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the dosage of fondaparinux for treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?

When is fondaparinux contraindicated for treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?

Is low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) effective for the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?

Are NSAIDs effective for the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?

When are antibiotics indicated for treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the role of local thrombolytics in the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the treatment for thrombosis of the great or small saphenous veins?

What is the prevalence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with superficial vein thrombosis?

What is the optimal treatment of saphenous vein thrombosis?

Which treatments are effective in reducing the risk of recurrent superficial venous thrombosis?

How does rivaroxaban compare to fondaparinux in the treatment of superficial venous thrombosis in patients at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE)?

When is venous excision indicated for the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?

When is surgical treatment indicated for superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the role of surgical ligation in the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the role of puncture incision in the treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis?

What is the treatment for septic and suppurative thrombophlebitis?

What monitoring is needed after treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis?

Medications

Which anti-inflammatory drugs may be beneficial in the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?

Are antithrombotic or antiplatelet-aggregating agents indicated in the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?

Are antibiotics indicated in the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis?