Venous Air Embolism Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 30, 2017
  • Author: Brenda L Natal, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Erik D Schraga, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is venous air embolism (VAE)?

What are the preconditions for venous air embolism (VAE) to occur?

What is the pathophysiology of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What causes venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the role of surgical procedures in the etiology of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What the incidence of venous air embolism (VAE) due to cesarean delivery and laparoscopy surgery?

Which procedures can cause venous air embolism (VAE) due a pressure gradient for airway entry?

What is the role of central venous catheterization in the etiology of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What are the risk factors for a catheter-related venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the role of mechanical insufflation or infusion in the etiology of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the role of positive-pressure ventilation in the etiology of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the role of trauma in the etiology of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the prevalence of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the prognosis of venous air embolism (VAE)?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of venous air embolism (VAE)?

Which clinical history findings suggest venous air embolism (VAE)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What are the cardiovascular signs of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What are the pulmonary signs and symptoms of venous air embolism (VAE)?

Which neurologic findings are characteristic of venous air embolism (VAE)?

Which funduscopic findings are characteristic of venous air embolism (VAE)?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Venous Air Embolism?

Workup

What is the role of lab tests in the workup of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the role of TEE in the workup of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the role of Doppler ultrasonography in the workup of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the role of chest radiography in the workup of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the role of CT and MRI in the workup of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the role of end-tidal nitrogen (ETN2) testing in the workup of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the role of ECG in the workup of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the role of end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) testing in the workup of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the role of pulse oximetry in the workup of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the role of pulmonary artery catheter in the workup of venous air embolism (VAE)?

What is the role of central venous catheter in the diagnosis of venous air embolism (VAE)?

How is venous air embolism (VAE) treated in the presence of a catheter?

Treatment

How is venous air embolism (VAE) treated in the emergency department (ED)?

What is included in supportive care for venous air embolism (VAE)?

How is venous air embolism (VAE) prevented during neurosurgical interventions?

How is venous air embolism (VAE) prevented during mechanical ventilation and central line insertion/removal/manipulation?