Urticaria Questions & Answers

Updated: Jun 13, 2018
  • Author: Henry K Wong, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is urticaria (hives) and how is it characterized?

How is urticaria (hives) categorized?

What are possible precipitants of acute urticaria (hives)?

How is physical urticaria (hives) characterized?

What should be the focus of the physical exam for urticaria (hives)?

What studies are performed in the evaluation of urticaria (hives)?

What prehospital care should be given for urticaria (hives) if anaphylactic shock is suspected?

What are the treatment options for urticaria (hives)?

What consultations may be helpful for the treatment of urticaria (hives)?

What is urticaria (hives) and what other conditions does it resemble?

How is acute urticaria (hives) characterized?

What is the pathophysiology of urticaria (hives)?

Which mechanisms activate histamine in the pathophysiology of urticaria (hives)?

What is the role of physical stimulus in the pathophysiology of urticaria (hives)?

What is the prevalence of urticaria (hives) in the US?

What is the global prevalence of urticaria (hives)?

How does the prevalence of urticaria (hives) vary by race?

How does the incidence of urticaria (hives) vary by sex?

How does the incidence of urticaria (hives) vary by age?

What are the primary manifestations of urticaria (hives)?

What is the prognosis of acute and chronic urticaria (hives)?

What information about urticaria (hives) should patients receive?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of urticaria (hives)?

What history is helpful in categorizing urticaria (hives)?

What is the focus of history for chronic or recurrent urticaria (hives)?

What should be the focus of history for acute urticaria (hives)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of urticaria (hives)?

What should be the focus of the physical exam for urticaria (hives)?

What are causes of acute generalized urticaria (hives)?

What are the causes of chronic urticaria (hives)?

What is urticaria pigmentosa (cutaneous mastocytosis), and how is it differentiated from common urticaria (hives)?

What causes recurrent urticaria (hives)?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Urticaria?

Workup

How are chronic autoimmune disease or underlying malignancy excluded during the evaluation of urticaria (hives)?

What is the role of lab testing in the evaluation of urticaria (hives)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the evaluation of urticaria (hives)?

What is the role of biopsy in the evaluation of urticaria (hives)?

Treatment

When is emergency department (ED) treatment of urticaria (hives) indicated?

When is epinephrine indicated in the treatment of urticaria (hives)?

How should hypotension be treated in a patient with urticaria (hives)?

What is the first-line therapy for urticaria (hives)?

What is the role of H2 antihistamines in the treatment of urticaria (hives)?

What is the role of doxepin in the treatment of urticaria (hives)?

What is the role of glucocorticoids in the treatment of urticaria (hives)?

What is the treatment for angioedema in patients with urticaria (hives)?

How is urticarial vasculitis managed?

What is the treatment for chronic urticaria (hives)?

When is hospitalization indicated for the treatment of urticaria (hives)?

Which specialist consultations may be helpful in the treatment of urticaria (hives)?

How is urticaria (hives) prevented?

What is the outpatient treatment for urticaria (hives)?

What long-term monitoring is needed following treatment of angioedema and urticaria (hives)?

Which specialist consultations may be needed for suspected urticarial vasculitis, chronic or recurrent urticaria (hives)?

Medications

How are most cases of urticaria (hives) treated?

What is the treatment regimen for urticaria (hives) resistant to the standard dosage of cetirizine or fexofenadine?

What is the role of omalizumab (Xolair) in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria (hives) (CIU)?

What is the role of glucocorticoids in the treatment of refractory chronic urticaria (hives)?

What is the role of doxepin in the treatment of chronic urticaria (hives)?

What are topical treatment options for refractory urticaria (hives)?

What is the role of cyproheptadine in the treatment of urticaria (hives)?

What is the role of cyclosporine in the treatment of refractory chronic urticaria (hives)?

Which nonantihistamine or nonbiologic agents are effective in the treatment of urticaria (hives)?

Which medications in the drug class Monoclonal Antibody are used in the treatment of Urticaria?

Which medications in the drug class H2-receptor antagonists are used in the treatment of Urticaria?

Which medications in the drug class Glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of Urticaria?

Which medications in the drug class Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are used in the treatment of Urticaria?

Which medications in the drug class H1-receptor antagonist antihistamines are used in the treatment of Urticaria?