Hypercalcemia in Emergency Medicine Questions & Answers

Updated: Apr 11, 2018
  • Author: Thomas E Green, DO, MPH, MMM, CPE, FACEP, FACOEP; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is hypercalcemia?

How is a hypercalcemic crisis defined?

What is the reference range of serum calcium?

What is the workup approach to hypercalcemia?

What is the treatment approach to hypercalcemia in the emergency department?

What is the physiology of normal plasma calcium regulation?

How does hypercalcemia develop?

What is the pathophysiology of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-mediated hypercalcemia?

What is the pathophysiology of hypercalcemia associated with malignancy?

What is the incidence of hypercalcemia among cancer patients in the US?

What is the incidence of hypercalcemia due to hyperparathyroidism in the US?

What is the international incidence of hypercalcemia in hospitalized pediatric patients?

What is the prognosis of hypercalcemia associated with malignancy?

What is the prognosis of hypercalcemia not associated with malignancy?

What are the sex-related demographics of hypercalcemia?

What are the age-related demographics of hypercalcemia?

Presentation

How do the symptoms of hypercalcemia manifest?

What are the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia?

Which patients with hypercalcemia are most likely to be symptomatic?

Why is hypercalcemia of malignancy difficult to detect?

Which symptoms of hypercalcemia are associated with hyperparathyroidism?

What are the physical findings in hypercalcemia?

Which nonspecific findings are associated with hypercalcemia?

Which corneal disease is associated with long-standing hypercalcemia?

What are the physical findings in hypercalcemia due to less common causes?

What are the different types of non-parathyroid hormone (PTH)-mediated hypercalcemia?

What are the main categories of hypercalcemia?

What causes parathyroid hormone (PTH)-mediated hypercalcemia?

What are the less common causes of hypercalcemia?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Hypercalcemia in Emergency Medicine?

Workup

What formula is used to calculate a corrected calcium level in hypercalcemia?

What is the purpose of measuring the ionized calcium level in the workup of hypercalcemia?

Which nonspecific lab results are associated with hypercalcemia?

Which ECG abnormalities are associated with hypercalcemia?

What is the next step after the diagnosis of hypercalcemia is established?

How should patients with hypercalcemia be evaluated?

Which imaging studies are indicated in the workup of hypercalcemia?

Treatment

What is included in the prehospital care of hypercalcemia?

Which factors determine the treatment of hypercalcemia in the ED?

What are the initial goals of treatment in hypercalcemia?

Which factors determine the rate of fluid therapy in the treatment of hypercalcemia?

What is the role of loop diuretics in the treatment of hypercalcemia?

What is the role of bisphosphates in the treatment of hypercalcemia?

What is specialist consultation indicated in the treatment of hypercalcemia?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of hypercalcemia?

Which medications in the drug class Calcimimetic Agent are used in the treatment of Hypercalcemia in Emergency Medicine?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Hypercalcemia in Emergency Medicine?

Which medications in the drug class Phosphate salts are used in the treatment of Hypercalcemia in Emergency Medicine?

Which medications in the drug class Antidote, Hypercalcemia are used in the treatment of Hypercalcemia in Emergency Medicine?

Which medications in the drug class Bisphosphonates are used in the treatment of Hypercalcemia in Emergency Medicine?

Follow-up

What outpatient care is indicated for hypercalcemia?

How is the drug regimen for the treatment of hypercalcemia determined?

What is the inpatient care of hypercalcemia?

When is transfer indicated for patients with hypercalcemia?

How can hypercalcemia be prevented or minimized?

What is the prognosis of hypercalcemia?