Hypernatremia in Emergency Medicine Questions & Answers

Updated: Feb 20, 2018
  • Author: Zina Semenovskaya, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is hypernatremia?

What is the pathophysiology of hypernatremia?

What is the prevalence of hypernatremia in the US?

What is the global prevalence of hypernatremia?

What are the mortality rates for hypernatremia?

What is the sexual predilection of hypernatremia?

Which patients are at highest risk for hypernatremia?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of hypernatremia?

Which physical findings are characteristic of hypernatremia?

What causes hypernatremia?

What causes of hypovolemic hypernatremia?

What causes of hypervolemic hypernatremia?

What causes euvolemic hypernatremia?

Which conditions are associated with central diabetes insipidus (DI)-related hypernatremia?

Which conditions are associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (DI)-related hypernatremia?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Hypernatremia in Emergency Medicine?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of hypernatremia?

What is the role of serum sodium measurement in the workup of hypernatremia?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of hypernatremia?

What is the role of water deprivation testing in the workup of hypernatremia?

What is the role of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stimulation in the workup of hypernatremia?

Treatment

What is included in prehospital care for hypernatremia?

What is included in emergency department (ED) care for patients for hypernatremia?

How are fluid deficits calculated in the emergency department (ED) care for hypernatremia?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with hypernatremia?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of hypernatremia?

Which medications in the drug class ADH replacement therapy are used in the treatment of Hypernatremia in Emergency Medicine?

Follow-up

What is included in inpatient care for hypernatremia?

When is patient transfer indicated for the treatment of hypernatremia?

How is hypernatremia prevented?

What are the possible complications of hypernatremia?

What is the prognosis of hypernatremia?

What is included in patient education about hypernatremia?