Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid Storm, and Graves Disease Questions & Answers

Updated: Apr 23, 2020
  • Author: Erik D Schraga, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is hyperthyroidism?

What is Graves disease?

What is thyroid storm?

What are conditions of excess thyroid hormone?

What is the pathophysiology of conditions of excess thyroid hormone?

What is the incidence of hyperthyroidism?

What is the incidence of thyroid storm?

What is the mortality risk from thyroid storm and morbidity risk in hyperthyroidism?

What is the racial predilections of hyperthyroidism?

How does the incidence of hyperthyroidism vary by sex?

How does the incidence of hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease vary by age?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm?

Which physical findings are characteristic of hyperthyroidism?

What are autoimmune etiologies of hyperthyroidism?

What are drug-induced etiologies of hyperthyroidism?

What are infectious etiologies of hyperthyroidism?

What is the role of toxic multinodular goiter in the etiology of hyperthyroidism?

What are iatrogenic etiologies of hyperthyroidism?

What is the role of tumors in the etiology of hyperthyroidism?

What are events that may trigger thyroid storm?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid Storm, and Graves Disease?

Workup

What is the role of thyroid function studies in the workup of hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?

Which lab studies are performed in the workup of hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?

Which findings on electrocardiogram suggest hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?

Treatment

What is included in emergency department (ED) care of hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?

Which medications are used in the emergency department (ED) treatment of hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?

What are the FDA warnings for the use of propylthiouracil (PTU) in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, and Graves disease?

What is the role of propylthiouracil (PTU) in the emergency department (ED) treatment of hyperthyroidism, and Graves disease?

How is thyrotoxicosis managed in the emergency department (ED)?

What are treatment options for medication-induced thyroid storm?

Which specialists should be consulted for the treatment of hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?

Guidelines

What are the key recommendations of the Japanese guidelines (2016) on the management of thyroid storm?

What do the ATA and AACE (2011) treatment guidelines for thyrotoxicosis cover?

What are the key recommendations of the ATA (2016) treatment guidelines for hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?

What are the ATA (2017) recommendations on the management of hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease during pregnancy?

Medications

What are the goals of medical therapy for hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?

Which medications are used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid Storm, and Graves Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Beta-adrenergic blockers are used in the treatment of Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid Storm, and Graves Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Blockade of hormone release are used in the treatment of Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid Storm, and Graves Disease?

Which medications in the drug class Inhibitors of hormone synthesis are used in the treatment of Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid Storm, and Graves Disease?

Follow-up

What outpatient followup is needed for hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?

What is included in inpatient care of hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?

When is transfer indicated for patients with hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?

What are the complications of hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?

What is the prognosis of hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?

What is included in patient education about hyperthyroidism, thyroid storm, and Graves disease?