Hyponatremia in Emergency Medicine Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 28, 2018
  • Author: Kartik Shah, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is hyponatremia?

What is hypovolemic hyponatremia?

What is euvolemic hyponatremia?

What is the hypervolemic hyponatremia?

What is redistributive hyponatremia?

What is pseudohyponatremia?

What is the pathophysiology of hyponatremia?

What is the prevalence of hyponatremia in the US?

What is the global prevalence of hyponatremia internationally?

What are the mortality and morbidity associated with hyponatremia?

What are the sexual predilections of hyponatremia by gender?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of hyponatremia?

What is the prognosis of hyponatremia?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of hyponatremia?

What are the symptoms of hyponatremia?

Which neurologic findings are characteristic of hyponatremia?

Which nonneurologic findings are characteristic of hyponatremia?

What causes hyponatremia?

Why is hyponatremia more present in the summer months?

What causes euvolemic hyponatremia?

What causes hypervolemic hyponatremia?

Which medications cause hyponatremia, and are the causes of hyponatremia multifactorial?

What are the possible complications of hyponatremia?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Hyponatremia in Emergency Medicine?

Workup

How is hyponatremia diagnosed?

What causes sampling errors in the diagnosis of hyponatremia?

Which physiologic states with low serum sodium levels are not hyponatremic?

What is the role of serum osmolarity in the diagnosis of hyponatremia?

What is the role of urine sodium measurement in the diagnosis of hyponatremia?

What is the role of urine osmolarity in the workup of hyponatremia?

What is the role of thyroid testing in the workup of hyponatremia?

What is the role of adrenal function testing in the workup of hyponatremia?

What is the role of serum ADH measurement in the workup of hyponatremia?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of hyponatremia?

Treatment

What is included in the prehospital care of hyponatremia?

How is hyponatremia evaluated and managed in the emergency department (ED)?

What are the Third International Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia Consensus Development Conference guidelines for exercise-associated hyponatremia?

What is chronic hyponatremia?

What is osmotic demyelination in hyponatremia and how is it treated?

What is included in the emergency department (ED) care of severe symptoms of chronic hyponatremia?

How is euvolemic hyponatremia treated, and how is concomitant hypokalemia and hyponatremia addressed?

What is included in the inpatient care of hyponatremia?

Medications

Which factors determine treatment selection for hyponatremia?

Which medications in the drug class Arginine Vasopressin Antagonists are used in the treatment of Hyponatremia in Emergency Medicine?

Which medications in the drug class Electrolyte Supplements are used in the treatment of Hyponatremia in Emergency Medicine?