Hypothermia Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 08, 2018
  • Author: James Li, MD; Chief Editor: Joe Alcock, MD, MS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is hypothermia?

What is the pathophysiology of hypothermia?

How does hypothermia affect the cardiovascular system?

How does hypothermia affect the CNS?

Which conditions may cause a decrease in heat production, leading to hypothermia?

What may cause an increase in heat loss, leading to hypothermia?

Which conditions cause impaired thermoregulation leading to hypothermia?

Which medications may cause hypothermia?

What is the incidence of hypothermia in the US?

How many deaths in the US are attributed annually to hypothermia?

How does the incidence of hypothermia vary by sex?

How does the incidence of hypothermia vary by age group?

What is the prognosis of hypothermia?

What is the mortality and morbidity of hypothermia?

Where can patient information about hypothermia be found?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of hypothermia?

What are the physical characteristics of a person with mild hypothermia (32-35°C)?

What are the physical characteristics of a person with severe hypothermia (<28°C)?

How is core temperature determined in patients with hypothermia?

What are the physical characteristics of a person with moderate hypothermia (28-32°C)?

What are the complications of hypothermia?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Hypothermia?

Workup

How is arterial blood gas determined in the workup of hypothermia?

What is the role of lab studies in the workup of hypothermia?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of hypothermia?

What is the role of ECG in the workup of hypothermia?

Treatment

What is the focus of prehospital management of hypothermia?

What is included in the initial emergency department (ED) care of patients with hypothermia?

What is the role of prophylactic bretylium in the emergency department (ED) care of patients with hypothermia?

What is the role of warmed, humidified oxygen and heated IV saline in the emergency department (ED) care of patients with hypothermia?

When is aggressive therapy indicated for the treatment of hypothermia?

Which methods are used in rewarming for the treatment of hypothermia?

How is ventricular fibrillation (VF) managed in patients with hypothermia?

When is open cardiac massage indicated in the treatment of hypothermia?

What is the role of cardiothoracic bypass in the treatment of hypothermia?

What is the role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (EMCO) in the treatment of hypothermia?

What is the simplest method of thoracic lavage for the treatment of hypothermia?

What is the AV heating method for thoracic lavage in the treatment of hypothermia?

What is the role of catheters in the treatment of hypothermia?

How is hypotension managed in patients with hypothermia?

What measures should be taken before pronouncing death in a patient with hypothermia?

What is included in inpatient care of hypothermia?

What are the complications of treatment of hypothermia?

How is hypothermia prevented?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for hypothermia?

Which medications in the drug class Antidysrhythmics, III are used in the treatment of Hypothermia?