Smoke Inhalation Injury Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 06, 2018
  • Author: Keith A Lafferty, MD; Chief Editor: Joe Alcock, MD, MS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is smoke inhalation injury?

Which physical findings are characteristic of smoke inhalation injury?

What are the signs and symptoms of lower respiratory tract injury caused by smoke inhalation?

What are the signs and symptoms of asphyxiant exposure due to smoke inhalation?

What is included in the workup of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the role of carboxyhemoglobin blood levels in the assessment of smoke inhalation injury?

How are smoke inhalation injuries treated?

When are steroids indicated in the treatment of smoke inhalation injury?

When is hospitalization indicated in the treatment of smoke inhalation injury?

How is mechanical ventilation administered in the treatment of smoke inhalation?

What are the indications for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in the treatment of smoke inhalation injury?

What are the effects of smoke inhalation?

What are the possible chemical exposures of smoke inhalation injury?

How are smoke inhalation injuries diagnosed?

How are smoke inhalation injuries treated in children?

What is the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide asphyxiation from smoke inhalation?

What is the pathophysiology of methemoglobinemia from smoke inhalation?

What are the mechanisms of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the pathophysiology of thermal injury from smoke inhalation?

What is the pathophysiology of asphyxiation from smoke inhalation?

What are sources of cyanide gas in smoke inhalation?

What is the pathophysiology of cyanide asphyxiation from smoke inhalation?

What are the possible neurological sequelae of cyanide toxicity from smoke inhalation?

What is the pathophysiology of pulmonary irritation from smoke inhalation?

What is the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation in the lower lung areas?

What is the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation associated with the military or industry?

What is the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation caused by oxides of nitrogen?

What is the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation caused by zinc oxide?

What is the pathophysiology of metal fume fever caused by smoke inhalation?

What is the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation caused by red phosphorus?

What is the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation caused by sulfur trioxide?

What is the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation caused by titanium tetrachloride?

What is the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation caused by oil fog?

What is the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation caused by Teflon particles?

What causes smoke inhalation injury?

How does carbon monoxide (CO) cause smoke inhalation injury?

How do oxides of nitrogen (NOx) cause smoke inhalation injury?

Which factors increase the risk of smoke inhalation injury from oxides of nitrogen (NOx) exposure?

How does zinc cause smoke inhalation injury?

How does red phosphorus cause smoke inhalation injury?

How does sulfur trioxide cause smoke inhalation injury?

How does titanium tetrachloride cause smoke inhalation injury?

Who is at highest risk of smoke inhalation injury from oil fog exposure?

How do Teflon particles cause smoke inhalation injury?

What is the prevalence of smoke inhalation injury?

What are the racial and sexual predilections of smoke inhalation injuries?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of smoke inhalation injuries?

What is the prevalence of smoke inhalation injury from house fires?

What is the prognosis of smoke inhalation injury?

What are the possible complications of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the prognosis of carbon monoxide poisoning relevant from smoke inhalation?

What is the mortality of smoke inhalation injury?

Which factors increased the mortality risk of smoke inhalation in children?

What is included in the patient education about smoke inhalation injury?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of patients affected by smoke inhalation?

Which chemical exposures affect the clinical presentation of smoke inhalation?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of smoke inhalation caused by oxides of nitrogen?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of smoke inhalation caused by zinc oxide?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of smoke inhalation caused by red phosphorus?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of smoke inhalation caused by titanium tetrachloride?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of smoke inhalation caused by oil fog?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of smoke inhalation caused by Teflon particles?

What is included in the physical exam to evaluate smoke inhalation injury?

Which physical findings suggest lower respiratory tract injury following smoke inhalation?

Which physical findings suggest neurologic injury following smoke inhalation?

Which physical findings suggest cardiovascular injury following smoke inhalation?

Which physical findings are characteristic of smoke inhalation?

Which physical findings are characteristic of carbon monoxide smoke inhalation?

Which physical findings are characteristic of cyanide smoke inhalation?

Which physical findings are characteristic of oxides of nitrogen smoke inhalation?

Which physical findings are characteristic of zinc oxide smoke inhalation?

Which physical findings are characteristic of red phosphorus smoke inhalation?

Which physical findings are characteristic of sulfur trioxide and titanium tetrachloride smoke inhalation?

Which physical findings are characteristic of Teflon particles smoke inhalation?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Smoke Inhalation Injury?

Workup

What is the primary focus of the initial workup of smoke inhalation?

What is the role of pulse oximetry and carbon monoxide (CO)-oximetry in the workup of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the role of arterial blood gases in the workup of smoke inhalation injury?

How do carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood correspond to the clinical presentation of smoke inhalation injury?

What causes elevated lactate levels following smoke inhalation?

What is the role of blood studies in the workup of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the role of a CBC count in the workup of smoke inhalation injury?

How is the level of cyanide (CN) intoxication assessed in the workup of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the role of radiography in the workup of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the role of CT scans in the workup of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the role of radionuclide scintigraphy in the workup of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the role of pulmonary function testing (PFT) in the workup of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the role of bronchoscopy in the workup of smoke inhalation injury?

Treatment

What are approach considerations in the treatment of smoke inhalation injury?

What is included in the prehospital care for smoke inhalation injury?

How are smoke inhalation injuries treated in the emergency department (ED)?

When is hospitalization indicated for the treatment of smoke inhalation injury?

How is carbon monoxide (CO) eliminated during the treatment of smoke inhalation injuries?

When is hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy indicated in the treatment of smoke inhalation injury?

How is cyanide poisoning treated following smoke inhalation?

How is methemoglobinemia treated in smoke inhalation injury?

What is the role of heparin and pentoxifylline in the treatment of smoke inhalation injuries?

What is the role of artificial surfactant in the treatment of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the role of aerosolized heparin/N -acetylcysteine in the treatment of smoke inhalation injury?

Which combination therapies have been suggested for the treatment of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the role of hypothermia in the treatment of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the role of chest physiotherapy in the treatment of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the role of mechanical ventilation in the treatment of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the role of tracheostomy in the treatment of smoke inhalation injury?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of smoke inhalation injury?

How are smoke inhalation injuries prevented?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of smoke inhalation injury?

What is the role of humidified oxygen in the treatment of smoke inhalation?

What is the role of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in the treatment of smoke inhalation?

Which medications in the drug class Alkalinizing Agents are used in the treatment of Smoke Inhalation Injury?

Which medications in the drug class Cycloplegics/Mydriatics are used in the treatment of Smoke Inhalation Injury?

Which medications in the drug class Chelators are used in the treatment of Smoke Inhalation Injury?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Smoke Inhalation Injury?

Which medications in the drug class Antidotes, Other are used in the treatment of Smoke Inhalation Injury?

Which medications in the drug class Beta2 Agonists are used in the treatment of Smoke Inhalation Injury?