Drowning Questions & Answers

Updated: Jun 19, 2019
  • Author: G Patricia Cantwell, MD, FCCM; Chief Editor: Joe Alcock, MD, MS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is the background of drowning?

How is drowning classified?

Which medical conditions are risk factors for drowning?

What causes drowning in infants?

What causes drowning in young children?

What causes drowning in young adults?

Which medical conditions may lead to drowning episodes in people of all ages?

Is suicide by drowning more common in men or women?

How is drowning associated with natural disasters?

How common is drowning in the US?

What is the global incidence of drowning?

What is the incidence of drowning in the UK?

Which risk factors are associated with drowning?

How common is diving-related drowning?

What are the causes of work-related drowning?

How many tourists drown in Australia?

What are the race-related demographics of drowning?

What are the sex- and age-related demographics of drowning?

What is the pathophysiology of drowning?

What is the target organ of submersion injury in drowning?

What are the pulmonary effects of drowning?

What are the CNS effects of drowning?

What are sources of secondary CNS injury in drowning?

What are the signs and symptoms of hyperstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system in drowning?

What are the cardiovascular effects of drowning?

What infections occur in submersion injuries/drowning?

Which system injuries or failures can occur in submersion injuries/drowning?

What is the prognosis of drowning?

What education measures help prevent drowning?

Presentation

What is the relevant patient history of drowning?

What are risk factors for newborn drowning deaths?

What are relevant factors in drowning cases?

How does water temperature contribute to drowning?

What are important historical factors of drowning?

Which medical conditions are risks for drowning?

How common is suicide by drowning?

What is the relevance of cardiac history in drowning patients?

How are drowning victims classified?

What are the symptoms of drowning?

What are the signs of cardiopulmonary arrest in drowning victims?

What are the signs of obvious death due to drowning?

DDX

What are the diagnostic considerations in drowning?

What are the differential diagnoses for Drowning?

Workup

What are the approach considerations in the workup of drowning patients?

What is the role of renal function tests in the workup of drowning?

What is the role of radiography in the workup of drowning?

What is the role of CT studies in the workup of drowning?

What is the role of ECG in the workup of drowning?

What is the role of catheter monitoring in the workup of drowning?

Treatment

What are the approach considerations in the treatment of drowning patients?

What prehospital care is indicated in drowning patients?

What emergency department care is indicated in drowning patients?

What is the role of intubation in the treatment of drowning patients?

When is endotracheal intubation indicated in drowning patients?

What is the role of PEEP in the treatment of drowning patients?

What is the role of ECMO in the treatment of drowning patients?

How are volume depletion and acidosis due to drowning treated?

What other interventions are indicated in the treatment of drowning patients?

What is the role of therapeutic hypothermia in the treatment of drowning patients?

How should patients with severe hypothermia due to drowning be treated?

How is temperature in cold-water drowning patients managed?

What are guidelines for temperature management in cold-water drowning patients?

What is the role of glucose control in drowning patients?

What are the discharge criteria for drowning patients treated in the ED?

When is inpatient care indicated for drowning patients?

What factors should be monitored before discharging drowning patients?

When is transfer indicated for drowning patients?

What factors increase the risk of death due to drowning?

How can drowning and near drowning be prevented?

How can we prevent children from drowning?

How can drowning during boating be prevented?

How can drowning during swimming be prevented?

What are the AAP guidelines for the prevention of drowning in infants, children, and adolescents?

Which specialist consultations are indicated in the treatment of drowning patients?

What long-term monitoring is indicated in drowning patients?

What is the prognosis of drowning patients?

Medications

Which medications are indicated in the treatment of drowning patients?

Which medications in the drug class Sympathomimetic Agents are used in the treatment of Drowning?