Emergent Treatment of Gastroenteritis Questions & Answers

Updated: Feb 10, 2017
  • Author: Arthur Diskin, MD; Chief Editor: Steven C Dronen, MD, FAAEM  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is gastroenteritis?

What is the pathophysiology of diarrhea in gastroenteritis?

Other than ingestion, which factors may lead to infections causing diarrhea in gastroenteritis?

What is the pathophysiology of vomiting in gastroenteritis?

What is the role of salmonella in the etiology of gastroenteritis?

What is the role of giardia lamblia in the etiology of gastroenteritis?

What is the role of norovirus in the etiology of gastroenteritis?

What is the role of non-norovirus caliciviruses in the etiology of gastroenteritis?

What is the role of rotavirus in the etiology of gastroenteritis?

Which viruses are less common causes of gastroenteritis?

What is the role of clostridium difficile (C diff) in the etiology of gastroenteritis?

What are less common bacterial causes of gastroenteritis?

What are the less common parasitic causes of gastroenteritis?

Which food-borne toxins cause gastroenteritis?

Which medications cause gastroenteritis?

What is the role of pseudomembranous colitis in the etiology of gastroenteritis?

What are the noninfectious causes of gastroenteritis?

What is the prevalence of gastroenteritis in the US?

What are documents outbreaks of gastroenteritis that have occurred in the US?

What is the prevalence of gastroenteritis outbreaks aboard cruise ships and how are they monitored?

What is the global prevalence of gastroenteritis?

Which patient groups have the highest prevalence of gastroenteritis?

What are the possible complications of gastroenteritis?

What is the prognosis of gastroenteritis?

What is included in patient education about gastroenteritis?

Presentation

What is the focus of clinical history in the evaluation of gastroenteritis?

What is the importance of the duration of illness in the history of gastroenteritis?

What does the presence of high fever suggest in the evaluation of gastroenteritis?

What does a history of vomiting suggest in the evaluation of gastroenteritis?

How is pain characterized in gastroenteritis?

How is stool characterized in gastroenteritis?

How are possible extraintestinal causes of gastroenteritis evaluated?

What are the signs and symptoms of dehydration in gastroenteritis?

Which epidemiologic factors should be assessed in the evaluation of gastroenteritis?

What is included in the physical exam to evaluate gastroenteritis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of dehydration in gastroenteritis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of nutritional depletion in gastroenteritis?

What is included in the abdominal exam to evaluate gastroenteritis?

DDX

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of gastroenteritis?

What are considerations in the diagnosis of gastroenteritis in patients with vomiting only?

How is pseudomembranous colitis diagnosed and treated?

How does the presentation of gastroenteritis differ between elderly patients and younger adults?

How is travelers' diarrhea diagnosed and treated?

How is food-borne gastroenteritis diagnosed and treated?

How is gastroenteritis diagnosed and treated in patients with AIDS?

What are the differential diagnoses for Emergent Treatment of Gastroenteritis?

Workup

How are the lab tests for the workup of gastroenteritis determined?

What is the role of stool studies and culture in the workup of gastroenteritis?

What is the role of routine lab tests in the workup of gastroenteritis?

What is the role of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the workup of gastroenteritis?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of gastroenteritis?

What is the role of sigmoidoscopy in the workup of gastroenteritis?

Treatment

What is the role of empiric therapy in gastroenteritis treatment?

What is the role of antiemetics in gastroenteritis treatment?

What is included in prehospital care of gastroenteritis?

What is the goal of emergency department (ED) treatment for gastroenteritis?

How are patients with gastroenteritis rehydrated?

What are the solutions for oral rehydration used in gastroenteritis treatment?

What are the steps in refeeding patients with gastroenteritis following rehydration?

What is the role of antidiarrheals in gastroenteritis treatment?

What is included in inpatient care for gastroenteritis?

When is patient transfer indicated for the treatment of gastroenteritis?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with gastroenteritis?

What is included in outpatient care of gastroenteritis?

How is gastroenteritis prevented?

How is gastroenteritis prevented when traveling?

How is norovirus gastroenteritis prevented?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of gastroenteritis?

Which medications in the drug class Vaccines are used in the treatment of Emergent Treatment of Gastroenteritis?

Which medications in the drug class Antidiarrheal agents are used in the treatment of Emergent Treatment of Gastroenteritis?

Which medications in the drug class Antiemetics are used in the treatment of Emergent Treatment of Gastroenteritis?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Emergent Treatment of Gastroenteritis?