Hiccups Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 29, 2017
  • Author: Garry Wilkes, MBBS, FACEM; Chief Editor: Steven C Dronen, MD, FAAEM  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What should be the focus of history in the evaluation of persistent and intractable hiccups?

Which physical findings are characteristic of prolonged hiccup attacks?

What is included in lab testing for hiccups?

Which imaging tests can be used in the workup of hiccups?

In addition to lab testing and imaging, which studies may be performed in the workup of hiccups?

What are the pharmacologic treatment options for hiccups?

What are the nonpharmacologic therapies for hiccups?

What are the surgical interventions for hiccups?

When are hiccups associated with morbidity and mortality?

How is hiccup bout defined?

What is the purpose of hiccups?

What is the typical frequency of hiccups?

What is the pathogenesis of hiccups?

What is the hiccup reflex?

What causes hiccups?

Are hiccups more common in men or women?

What psychogenic conditions are associated with hiccups?

What are CNS-related causes of hiccups?

Which conditions give rise to diaphragmatic irritation caused hiccups?

Which conditions are associated with vagus nerve irritation caused hiccups?

What are the procedure- or anesthesia- related causes of hiccups?

What are metabolic causes of hiccups?

Which drugs are associated with hiccups?

How does the incidence of hiccups vary by age?

How does the incidence of hiccups vary by sex?

What is the prognosis of hiccups?

Presentation

How are hiccups diagnosed?

Which physical findings are characteristic of hiccups?

DDX

Which conditions should be considered in the differential diagnoses of hiccups?

What are the differential diagnoses for Hiccups?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the evaluation of hiccups?

What is the role of imaging studies in the evaluation of hiccups?

Which studies may be helpful in the evaluation of hiccups?

Treatment

What are treatment options for hiccups?

What is the role of medications in the treatment of hiccups?

Which medications have been used for the treatment of hiccups?

Which nonpharmacologic remedies are used in the emergency department (ED) to treat hiccups?

Which therapies use vagal stimulation to treat hiccups?

Which techniques interfere with respiratory function in the treatment of hiccups?

What are nonpharmacologic therapies used to treat hiccups?

What is the role of surgical intervention in the treatment of hiccups?

Medications

Which medications can be used to treat hiccups?

Which medications in the drug class Stimulants are used in the treatment of Hiccups?

Which medications in the drug class Antidepressants, Tricyclic Antidepressants are used in the treatment of Hiccups?

Which medications in the drug class Sedative/Hypnotics are used in the treatment of Hiccups?

Which medications in the drug class Antipsychotic Agents are used in the treatment of Hiccups?

Which medications in the drug class Analgesics are used in the treatment of Hiccups?

Which medications in the drug class Muscle Relaxants are used in the treatment of Hiccups?

Which medications in the drug class Anesthetics are used in the treatment of Hiccups?

Which medications in the drug class Anticonvulsants/Antiarrhythmics are used in the treatment of Hiccups?

Which medications in the drug class Antiemetic Agents are used in the treatment of Hiccups?