Diphtheria Questions & Answers

Updated: Jan 18, 2019
  • Author: Bruce M Lo, MD, MBA, CPE, RDMS, FACEP, FAAEM, FACHE; Chief Editor: Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

What is diphtheria?

What factors contribute to susceptibility to diphtheria?

What is the pathophysiology of diphtheria?

How common is diphtheria in the US?

What is the global incidence of diphtheria?

What is the mortality rate of diphtheria?

Does diphtheria have a racial predilection?

Is diphtheria more common in males or females?

Which age group is most commonly affected by diphtheria?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of respiratory diphtheria?

How is cutaneous diphtheria characterized?

What are common presenting complaints in patients with diphtheria?

What is the clinical course of respiratory diphtheria?

What is the clinical course of cutaneous diphtheria?

What are the general clinical findings in diphtheria?

What are the clinical findings in pharyngeal diphtheria?

How is cardiac toxicity characterized in diphtheria?

How does neurologic toxicity manifest in diphtheria?

What factors predispose individuals to diphtheria infection?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Diphtheria?

Workup

Which lab studies definitively diagnose diphtheria?

How is diphtheria characterized on Gram stain?

How is diphtheria characterized in cultures?

What is the role of toxigenicity testing in the workup of diphtheria?

What nonspecific lab findings are seen in cases of diphtheria?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of diphtheria?

What is the role of ECG in the workup of diphtheria?

Which procedures may be indicated during the workup of diphtheria?

Treatment

What is the prehospital care for diphtheria?

When should treatment of diphtheria be initiated?

Why is it important to secure an airway in patients with diphtheria?

What is the role of cardiac monitoring in the treatment of diphtheria?

How is diphtheria treated in patients with a toxic appearance?

Which specialist consultations may be indicated in the treatment of diphtheria?

How effective is diphtheria vaccination, and how often are booster vaccines recommended?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of diphtheria?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotic, Penicillin are used in the treatment of Diphtheria?

Which medications in the drug class Macrolides are used in the treatment of Diphtheria?

Which medications in the drug class Antitoxins are used in the treatment of Diphtheria?

Follow-up

What follow-up monitoring is indicated in the treatment of diphtheria?

What is involved in the inpatient care of diphtheria?

Which medications may be indicated in the treatment of diphtheria?

When is admission to an ICU indicated in the treatment of diphtheria?

What group is working towards global immunizations and disease prevention of diphtheria?

What diphtheria vaccinations are available?

What are the CDC recommendations on diphtheria vaccinations for pregnant patients?

How have diphtheria immunization schedules changed for adolescent and adult populations?

What are the complications of diphtheria?

What is the prognosis of diphtheria?

What information should all people have about diphtheria?