Delirium, Dementia, and Amnesia in Emergency Medicine Questions & Answers

Updated: Sep 19, 2018
  • Author: Richard D Shin, MD; Chief Editor: Gil Z Shlamovitz, MD, FACEP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What is the pathophysiology of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What is the prevalence of delirium, dementia, and amnesia in the US?

What is the global prevalence of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What is the mortality and morbidity associated with delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What are the racial predilections of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What are the sexual predilections of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What are the risk factors for delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What is the prognosis of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

Presentation

How is mental status altered in delirium and dementia?

What are the signs and symptoms of delirium?

What should be the focus of the clinical history for delirium?

What are the types of delirium?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of dementia?

What is included in the physical exam to evaluate for delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

Which physical findings are characteristic of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

How is an anticholinergic overdose differentiated from delirium?

How is head trauma differentiated from delirium?

What is the role of the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) in the diagnosis of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

How is the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) administered in the diagnosis of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What are alternative assessments to the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) for the diagnosis of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What causes of delirium?

What are causes of delirium, dementia, and amnesia in the elderly?

What is the role of head trauma in the etiology of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What causes amnesia?

What causes dementia?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Delirium, Dementia, and Amnesia in Emergency Medicine?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

Which lab tests are performed when alcohol, drugs, and/or toxins are the suspected cause of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

Which lab tests are performed when an endocrine emergency is the suspected cause of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

Which lab tests are performed when a CNS infection is the suspected cause of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What is the role of an ECG in the workup of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

How is a diagnosis of dementia confirmed?

Which vitamin testing may be helpful in the diagnosis of dementia?

What is the role of lumbar puncture in the workup of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

Treatment

What is included in prehospital care for delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What is included in emergency department (ED) care of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What is included in inpatient care for delirium?

Which specialist consultations may be helpful to patients with delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

How is delirium prevented?

Guidelines

What are the APA guidelines for the use of antipsychotics to manage agitation or psychosis in dementia?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the emergency department (ED) treatment of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

Which medications in the drug class Antidotes are used in the treatment of Delirium, Dementia, and Amnesia in Emergency Medicine?

Which medications in the drug class Atypical antipsychotics are used in the treatment of Delirium, Dementia, and Amnesia in Emergency Medicine?

Which medications in the drug class Neuroleptics are used in the treatment of Delirium, Dementia, and Amnesia in Emergency Medicine?

Which medications in the drug class Glucose supplements are used in the treatment of Delirium, Dementia, and Amnesia in Emergency Medicine?

Which medications in the drug class Sedatives are used in the treatment of Delirium, Dementia, and Amnesia in Emergency Medicine?

Follow-up

When is outpatient care indicated for delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

When is inpatient care indicated for the treatment of delirium?

Which medications are used in the treatment of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

How is dementia prevented?

What are the possible complications of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?

What is the prognosis of delirium, dementia, and amnesia?