Spinal Cord Injuries Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 01, 2018
  • Author: Lawrence S Chin, MD, FACS, FAANS; Chief Editor: Brian H Kopell, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is the focus of care for spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What are the categories of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What are the ASIA definitions for complete and incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What are signs of respiratory dysfunction in spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How does the level of spinal cord injury (SCI) affect the degree of respiratory dysfunction?

Which lab tests are performed in the workup of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

Which imaging studies are performed in the workup of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is included in emergency department (ED) care for spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How are pulmonary complications managed in spinal cord injury (SCI)?

When is surgical decompression indicated in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the ISNCSCI classification of spinal cord injuries?

What is the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) method for classifying spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the anatomy relevant to spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the neuropathway anatomy relevant to spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the vascular supply anatomy relevant to spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the role of neurogenic shock in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the role of spinal shock in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the pathophysiology of primary spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury without radiologic abnormality (SCIWORA)?

What is the pathophysiology of secondary spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the difference between a complete and incomplete spinal cord injury (PCI)?

What are the types of incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the pathophysiology of conus medullaris syndrome?

What is the pathophysiology of cauda equina syndrome?

What is the pathophysiology of a spinal cord concussion?

What causes spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the prevalence of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

Which patient groups are at highest risk for spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the prevalence of pediatric spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What are the most common causes of pediatric spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How does spinal cord injury (SCI) affect marital status?

What is the prevalence of spinal cord injury (SCI) according to educational status?

What is the effect of spinal cord injury (SCI) on employment status?

What is the prognosis of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the life expectancy and mortality of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How does pain management effect spinal cord injury (SCI) prognosis?

Which patient group is most likely to be indoor walkers after spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the role of a brain-computer interface (BCI) in spinal cord injury (SCI) management?

What is the role of walking assistance systems in spinal cord injury (SCI) management?

What is included in the impatient therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How is spinal cord injury (SCI) prevented?

Presentation

What is included in the initial clinical evaluation of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is included in the clinical assessment of pulmonary function in acute spinal cord injury (SCI)?

Which determinants of pulmonary function may be impaired in spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How does the level of spinal cord injury (SCI) affect the degree of respiratory dysfunction?

Which findings of respiratory dysfunction are characteristic of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of hemorrhagic shock in spinal cord injury (SCI)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of autonomic dysfunction in spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How is hemorrhagic shock differentiated from neurogenic shock in spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How is nerve root injury differentiated from spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How is sensory function testing performed in the evaluation of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How is a sensory function test scored in the evaluation of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How is motor strength assessed in spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How is the neurologic level of spinal cord injury (SCI) assessed?

How are sacral roots assessed in spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How are the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale categories defined?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Spinal Cord Injuries?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the role of plain radiography in the workup of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

Treatment

What is the initial approach to spinal cord injury (SCI) treatment?

When is patient transfer indicated in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is included in prehospital care for spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How should patient be positioned for the initial evaluation of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the role of airway management in the ED treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How are hypotension, hemorrhage, and shock in spinal cord injury (SCI) assessed?

How is neurogenic shock managed in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How are head injuries assessed in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the ED treatment for ileus in spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How are pressure sores prevented during the ED treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the role of steroid therapy in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the efficacy of high dose steroids for the initial treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What are the possible adverse effects of steroid treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What are the guidelines on steroid therapy in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the role of GM-1 in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How are steroids administered in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How are the pulmonary complications of spinal cord injury (SCI) treated?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What are the possible complications of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What are the signs of neurologic deterioration in spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What causes pressure sores in spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What is the role of a backboard in the initial treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What are the pulmonary complications relative to spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What causes sepsis in spinal cord injury (SCI)?

How is hypothermia prevented in spinal cord injury (SCI)?

Guidelines

What is the focus of guidelines on spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What are the AANS/CNS guidelines on immobilization of acute spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What are the AANS/CNS guidelines on the initial assessment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI)?

What are the AANS/CNS guidelines on the initial treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI)?

Medications

What are the goals of medical treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)?

Which medications in the drug class Analgesics, Other are used in the treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries?

Which medications in the drug class Glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries?