Wernicke Encephalopathy Medication

Updated: Nov 03, 2016
  • Author: Philip N Salen, MD; Chief Editor: Robert E O'Connor, MD, MPH  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

The cornerstone of therapy for prevention or treatment of WE in most alcoholic patients is thiamine until the patient resumes a normal diet. Administer daily oral thiamine (100 mg) on a long-term, outpatient basis.

As previously stated, patients with WE are likely hypomagnesemic and should be treated empirically with parenteral magnesium sulfate, as they may be unresponsive to parenteral thiamine in the presence of hypomagnesemia. [4] After correction of hypomagnesemia in conjunction with thiamine repletion, the blood transketolase activity can return to normal and clearing of the clinical signs of WE may occur.

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Nutrients

Class Summary

The primary objective is to replenish vitamin B-1 stores. In adults, 60-180 mEq of potassium, 10-30 mEq of magnesium, and 10-40 mmol/L of phosphate per day appear necessary to achieve optimum metabolic balance.

Thiamine

Begin thiamine administration prior to treating the patient with intravenous glucose solutions. Glucose infusions may precipitate Wernicke disease or acute cardiovascular beriberi in a previously unaffected patient or cause rapid worsening of an early form of the disease.

Magnesium sulfate

Magnesium is a cofactor in a number of enzyme systems; it is also involved in neurochemical transmission and muscular excitability. Persons with long-term alcoholism and patients who are malnourished usually have inadequate magnesium stores.

Potassium acid phosphate (K-Phos)

Potassium is essential for transmission of nerve impulses, contraction of cardiac muscle, maintenance of intracellular tonicity, skeletal and smooth muscles, and maintenance of normal renal function. Gradual potassium depletion occurs via renal excretion, through gastrointestinal loss, or because of low intake. Patients with chronic alcoholism and those who are malnourished usually have inadequate nutrient stores. Potassium depletion sufficient to cause a 1-mEq/L drop in serum potassium requires a loss of about 100-200 mEq of potassium from the total body store.

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