Pediatric Dehydration Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 12, 2018
  • Author: Alex Koyfman, MD; Chief Editor: Muhammad Waseem, MBBS, MS, FAAP, FACEP, FAHA  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What causes dehydration in children?

What is the difference between dehydration and volume depletion?

Why are children more susceptible to dehydration than adults?

How does hyponatremia occur in pediatric dehydration?

What is hyponatremic volume depletion in pediatric dehydration?

What is the role of hypernatremic volume depletion in the pathophysiology of pediatric dehydration?

What is the role of potassium in the pathophysiology of pediatric dehydration?

What is the role of metabolic acidosis in the pathophysiology of pediatric dehydration?

What are the mechanisms of pediatric dehydration?

What are the causes of vomiting leading to pediatric dehydration?

What are causes of diarrhea leading to pediatric dehydration?

What are renal causes of volume depletion leading to pediatric dehydration?

What are hormonal causes of volume depletion leading to pediatric dehydration?

What are extrarenal causes of volume depletion leading to pediatric dehydration?

What is the prevalence of pediatric dehydration?

What is the prognosis of pediatric dehydration?

Presentation

What is the goal of the history and physical exam in the evaluation of pediatric dehydration?

What should be the focus of history in suspected pediatric dehydration?

How is the severity of dehydration measured in children?

Which physical findings are characteristic of dehydration in children?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Pediatric Dehydration?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the evaluation of pediatric dehydration?

Which studies are performed in the evaluation of pediatric dehydration with hypovolemic shock?

What is the role of serum electrolyte levels in the evaluation of pediatric dehydration?

Which lab studies may be helpful in the evaluation of pediatric dehydration?

What is the role of bedside ultrasound in the evaluation of pediatric dehydration?

When is a trial of oral rehydration indicated in the evaluation of pediatric dehydration?

What are typical sites for central venous access?

When is ultrasound-guided vascular access indicated in the management of pediatric dehydration?

When is venous cutdown indicated in the management of pediatric dehydration?

Treatment

What is the initial approach to the treatment of pediatric dehydration?

What are the treatment options for mild volume depletion in pediatric dehydration?

What is the alternative to commercially-prepared oral rehydration solution (ORS) for the treatment of pediatric dehydration?

What is the role of apple juice in the treatment of pediatric dehydration?

What are the treatment options for moderate volume depletion in pediatric dehydration?

What are the treatment options for severe volume depletion in pediatric dehydration?

Once vital sign abnormalities are corrected, fluid requirements for the treatment of severe dehydration?

What is the role of dextrose in the treatment of severe pediatric dehydration?

What are the daily sodium and potassium requirements for children with severe dehydration?

What is the role of normal saline in the treatment of severe pediatric dehydration?

How is hypokalemia managed in children with severe dehydration?

What are the indications for inpatient therapy of pediatric dehydration?

What is the role of pharmacologic therapy in the treatment of pediatric dehydration?

Which consultations are needed for the treatment of pediatric dehydration?

Medications

Which medications in the drug class Antiemetics are used in the treatment of Pediatric Dehydration?