Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Emphysema in Emergency Medicine Questions & Answers

Updated: Aug 15, 2019
  • Author: Paul Kleinschmidt, MD; Chief Editor: Barry E Brenner, MD, PhD, FACEP  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What factor indicates a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility phenotype?

What three diseases processes form the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

How does smoking increase susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What are defining features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the role of chronic bronchitis in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the role of emphysema in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What can cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

How prevalent is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the US?

How does the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) vary by age?

What is the prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What factors can alter the prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What information about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should patients receive?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

How do symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) vary between the two types?

How do the physical findings suggestive of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) vary between the two types?

What are possible complications of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Emphysema in Emergency Medicine?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the evaluation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

Which lab tests are helpful in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

How is polycythemia revealed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

Which lab tests are performed to differentiate other diseases from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the role of increased lactate levels due to beta-adrenergic agents (albuterol) in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the evaluation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the role of pulse oximetry in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the role of electrocardiography in the evaluation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD?

What is the role of pulmonary function tests in the evaluation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

Treatment

What are the mainstays of therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the benefit of titrated oxygen treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

When is intubation indicated in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

In prehospital care, what action should be taken if CO2 levels increase in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

In a prehospital setting, what care should be given for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What are the treatment options for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the ED?

What consultation is recommended when treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the ED?

What are the roles of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the role of nitric oxide in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

How is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevented?

In the ED, what monitoring is needed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

How frequently should a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) be seen by a physician?

Guidelines

What are the GOLD guidelines recommendations for the diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the GOLD classification for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What are the treatment guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) based on GOLD patient grouping?

Medications

In the emergency department, what medications are used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What are the first-line therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What are the benefits of combination therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What are the benefits of beta-agonists for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

When should a nebulizer be used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the role of anticholinergics in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the role of methylxanthines in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the role of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

Which antibiotics are used in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

Which antibiotics are effective in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the role of fluoroquinolones in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the role of magnesium in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the role of helium in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the role of leukotriene receptor antagonists in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

What is the role of corticosteroids in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

Which medications in the drug class Electrolyte supplements are used in the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Emphysema in Emergency Medicine?

Which medications in the drug class Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Emphysema in Emergency Medicine?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Emphysema in Emergency Medicine?

Which medications in the drug class Bronchodilators are used in the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Emphysema in Emergency Medicine?