Empyema and Abscess Pneumonia Medication

Updated: Mar 18, 2015
  • Author: Michael A Ward, MD; Chief Editor: Robert E O'Connor, MD, MPH  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

Lung abscesses are treated with a prolonged course of parenteral antibiotics that target organisms found in aspiration pneumonia. The initial choice of antibiotics frequently is empiric, beginning with clindamycin, cefoxitin, ticarcillin, or piperacillin/tazobactam, although penicillin has been very effective when the organism is sensitive. Some authors advocate adding coverage for Klebsiella as well. Subsequent therapy should be based on sputum or blood culture results.

An empyema is treated with parenteral antibiotics and prompt surgical drainage. Empiric therapy, including anaerobic coverage, for an empyema frequently includes clindamycin, carbapenems, or beta-lactam plus beta-lactamase inhibitors like piperacillin/tazobactam until a definitive organism is identified on pleural fluid cultures and sensitivities are obtained. For an empyema secondary to aspiration pneumonia or a parapneumonic process, choose antibiotics that are active against mouth flora, S aureus, and Streptococcus species. For an empyema secondary to penetrating chest trauma, administer antibiotics that have coverage for skin flora. There should be a strong consideration to cover with vancomycin given the increasing incidence of empyema caused by MRSA. Pleural fluids or sputum specimens that are obtained should be cultured for M tuberculosis as well.

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Antibiotics

Class Summary

Empiric antimicrobial therapy must be comprehensive and should cover all likely pathogens in the context of the clinical setting.

Clindamycin (Cleocin)

Lincosamide for the treatment of serious skin and soft-tissue staphylococcal infections. Also effective against aerobic and anaerobic streptococci (except enterococci). Inhibits bacterial growth, possibly by blocking dissociation of peptidyl tRNA from ribosomes causing RNA-dependent protein synthesis to arrest.

Cefoxitin (Mefoxin)

Second-generation cephalosporin indicated for infections with gram-positive cocci and gram-negative rod. Infections caused by cephalosporin- or penicillin-resistant gram-negative bacteria may respond.

Penicillin G (Pfizerpen)

Interferes with synthesis of cell wall mucopeptide during active multiplication, resulting in bactericidal activity against susceptible microorganisms; traditional drug for the treatment of lung abscess, but its spectrum of activity is narrow.

Ticarcillin/clavulanate (Timentin)

Inhibits biosynthesis of cell wall mucopeptide and is effective during active growth stage. Antipseudomonal penicillin plus beta-lactamase inhibitor that provides coverage against most gram-positive bacteria, most gram-negative bacteria, and most anaerobes.

Piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn)

Antipseudomonal penicillin plus beta-lactamase inhibitor. Inhibits biosynthesis of cell wall mucopeptide and is effective during stage of active multiplication.

Imipenem and cilastatin (Primaxin)

For treatment of multiple organism infections in which other agents do not have wide-spectrum coverage or are contraindicated because of potential for toxicity.

Vancomycin (Vancoled, Vancocin, Lyphocin)

Potent antibiotic directed against gram-positive organisms and active against Enterococcus species. Useful in the treatment of septicemia and skin structure infections. Indicated for patients who cannot receive or whose conditions are unresponsive to penicillins and cephalosporins or have infections with resistant staphylococci. For abdominal-penetrating injuries, it is combined with an agent active against enteric flora and/or anaerobes. To avoid toxicity, current recommendation is to assay vancomycin trough levels after third dose drawn 0.5 h prior to next dosing. Use CrCl to adjust dose in patients with renal impairment.

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