Barbiturate Toxicity Medication

Updated: Jan 14, 2017
  • Author: Keith A Lafferty, MD; Chief Editor: Asim Tarabar, MD  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

GI decontamination with activated charcoal and urinary alkalinization may be beneficial in patient management. Also, pharmacologic support may be required in hypotensive patients with the use of pressor agents.

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GI decontaminants

Activated charcoal (Liqui-Char)

Prevents absorption by adsorbing drug in the intestine. Multidose charcoal may interrupt enterohepatic recirculation and enhance elimination by enterocapillary exsorption. Theoretically, by constantly bathing the GI tract with charcoal, the intestinal lumen serves as a dialysis membrane for reverse-absorption of drug from intestinal villous capillary blood back into the intestine.

Supplied as an aqueous mixture or in combination with a cathartic (usually sorbitol 70%).

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Alkalinizing agent

Sodium bicarbonate (Neut)

Goal is to maintain a urinary pH >7.5 and urine output >2 mL/kg/h. Monitor arterial or venous pH; a blood pH >7.55 may increase patient morbidity. This therapy is specific to long-acting barbiturates given their lower pKa, with ion trapping being the intended mechanism.

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Adrenergic Agonist Agents

Norepinephrine (Levophed)

Stimulates beta1-adrenergic and alpha-adrenergic receptors, which, in turn, increases cardiac muscle contractility, heart rate, and vasoconstriction. As a result, systemic blood pressure and coronary blood flow increase.

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