Benzodiazepine Toxicity Clinical Presentation

Updated: Apr 28, 2022
  • Author: J Michael Kowalski, DO; Chief Editor: Gil Z Shlamovitz, MD, FACEP  more...
  • Print


Information to elicit when taking the history in cases of possible benzodiazepine (BZD) overdose includes the following:

  • Time of ingestion
  • Dose
  • Co-ingestants, if any
  • Whether the overdose was accidental or intentional
  • In patients prescribed BZDs, the duration of BZD use

Symptoms of BZD overdose may include the following:

  • Respiratory depression
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Drowsiness
  • Blurred vision
  • Unresponsiveness
  • Anxiety
  • Agitation

Physical Examination

Focus the physical examination on the patient's vital signs and cardiorespiratory and neurologic function. "Classic" isolated benzodiazepine overdose presents as coma with normal vital signs.

Findings on physical examination may include the following:

  • Nystagmus
  • Hallucinations
  • Slurred speech
  • Ataxia
  • Coma
  • Hypotonia
  • Weakness
  • Altered mental status, impairment of cognition
  • Amnesia
  • Paradoxical agitation
  • Respiratory depression
  • Hypotension