Orellanine Mushroom Toxicity

Updated: Nov 11, 2018
  • Author: Reed Brozen, MD; Chief Editor: Sage W Wiener, MD  more...
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Overview

Background

Cortinarius orellanus, the poznan cort mushroom, is one of the few types of mushrooms that can cause fatal poisonings. Of the thousands of mushroom species that are increasingly studied and collected by amateur mushroom hunters, about 100 can cause serious illness, but only about 10 cause death.

People become sick after ingesting mushrooms for several reasons. They may have ingested toxin-containing mushrooms or mushrooms that cause Antabuse-type reactions to alcohol; they may experience difficulty digesting large amounts of mushrooms or have immunologic reactions to mushroom derived antigens.

Cortinarius species (corts) that may contain the orellanine toxin include the following:

  • C orellanus
  • C speciosissimus
  • C rainierensis
  • C callisteus
  • C gentilis (deadly cort; in Europe, gentle cort)
  • C splendens
  • C cinnamomeus group
  • C semisanguineus group

The most common of these in North America is probably C gentilis, although C orellanus and C speciosissimus are most often implicated in documented exposures. Presence of C orellanus in North America remains unconfirmed.

Orellanine is the major toxin found in these mushrooms. Orellanine (3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-2,2'-bipyridine-1,1'-dioxide) is a colorless, crystalline, nephrotoxic compound. [1, 2] Orelline is a possibly toxic product of orellanine.

Three other polypeptides have been identified: cortinarin A, cortinarin B, and cortinarin C. At least two of those appear to be nephrotoxic in experimental animals.

Mushroom identification is beyond the scope of this text, but existence of corts is one of the many reasons not to eat little brown mushrooms (LBMs).

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Pathophysiology

Patients with orellanine exposure may experience early symptoms because of other components of the mushroom; orellanine appears to be renal specific. Inhibition of alkaline phosphatase decreases production of adenosine triphosphate and disrupts cellular metabolism. Reaction is specific to the epithelium of cells in the proximal tubules and results in tubulointerstitial nephritis and renal failure, with concomitant symptoms and complications. Orellanine seems to cause almost no reaction in glomeruli, although in an animal model, elimination of orellanine was almost exclusively by glomerular filtration. [3]

Studies of orellanine poisoning in rats have shown no signs of acute toxicity apart from renal failure, but a study of orellanine poisoning in mice showed tubular necrosis as well as effects on other organs, as follows [4] :

  • Liver injury, demonstrated by reduced liver weight, elevated liver enzymes, and histopathology characterized by mild hepatocellular vacuolation
  • Splenic atrophy, characterized by lymphocytolysis
  • Thrombocytopenia.

However, a study of 28 patients with orellanine poisoning noted that no signs of acute damage were present in any other organ.except the kidney. [5]

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Epidemiology

Frequency

United States

In 2016, 7 single exposures to orellanine-containing mushrooms, none of them fatal, were reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers' (AAPCC) Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. [6] A range of 0-8 exposures per year have been reported over the past 14 years. The reports by year can be found at the APPC site.

Unknown mushroom type makes up most mushroom exposures each year, usually accounting for well over 80% of mushroom exposures (eg, over 5000 in 2016).2 However, deaths in this group remain remarkably low (0-2 per year since 1996).

A study published in May 2000 that used data from the National Center for Health Statistics found no difference when compared with AAPCC data in numbers of deaths caused by mushroom exposures. [7]

International

No accurate database exists, but mushroom gathering is more common in Eastern and Western Europe than in North America. Most documented cases of orellanine toxicity are from Europe.

Mortality/Morbidity

Few data are available to estimate incidence of orellanine poisoning. Most reported cases of renal failure are from Europe. The AAPCC last reported a recognized Cortinarius exposure with a major effect in outcome category (ie, exposure resulted in life-threatening signs or symptoms or resulted in significant residual disability) in 1999. Since 1999 no outcomes have occurred in the major category and only 3 total in the moderate class (ie, signs or symptoms more pronounced, more prolonged, or more systemic in nature than minor symptoms usually indicating the need for some form of treatment, but the patient had no residual disability).

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