MDMA Toxicity Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 20, 2017
  • Author: In-Hei Hahn, MD, FACEP, FACMT; Chief Editor: Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is MDMA toxicity?

What is MDMA?

What is the pathophysiology of MDMA?

What are the routes of MDMA administration?

What is the role of metabolism in the pathophysiology of MDMA toxicity?

What is the role of tolerance in the pathophysiology of MDMA toxicity?

How does the purity of MDMA affect toxicity?

What are the adverse effects of MDMA toxicity?

What are the cardiovascular effects of MDMA toxicity?

What is the pathophysiology of serotonin syndrome due to MDMA toxicity?

What is the pathophysiology of hyponatremia in MDMA toxicity?

What are neurologic effects of MDMA toxicity?

What is the pathophysiology of hepatotoxicity caused by MDMA?

What are long-term neuropsychiatric effects of MDMA toxicity?

What is the prevalence of MDMA toxicity in the US?

What is the global prevalence of MDMA toxicity?

What is the mortality and morbidity associated with MDMA toxicity?

Which patient groups are at highest risk for MDMA toxicity?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of MDMA toxicity?

What are the CNS signs and symptoms of MDMA toxicity?

What are the cardiovascular signs and symptoms of MDMA toxicity?

What are the GI signs and symptoms of MDMA toxicity?

What are the cutaneous signs and symptoms of MDMA toxicity?

What are the genitourinary and dental signs and symptoms of MDMA toxicity?

What is included in the physical exam to evaluate MDMA toxicity?

Which ENT findings are characteristic of MDMA toxicity?

Which CNS findings are characteristic of MDMA toxicity?

Which cardiovascular findings are characteristic of MDMA toxicity?

Which respiratory findings are characteristic of MDMA toxicity?

Which GI and genitourinary findings are characteristic of MDMA toxicity?

DDX

Which adulterants and MDMA substitutes should be considered in the differential diagnoses of MDMA toxicity?

What are the differential diagnoses for MDMA Toxicity?

Workup

What is the role of lab tests in the workup of MDMA toxicity?

What is the role of cardiac testing and monitoring in the workup of MDMA toxicity?

What is the role of lumbar puncture in the workup of MDMA toxicity?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of MDMA toxicity?

Treatment

What is included in prehospital care for MDMA toxicity?

What causes morbidity in MDMA toxicity?

How is MDMA toxicity treated?

How is hyperthermia treated in MDMA toxicity?

What is the role of dantrolene in the treatment of MDMA toxicity?

How are seizures treated in MDMA toxicity?

How is rhabdomyolysis treated in MDMA toxicity?

How are the cardiovascular manifestation of MDMA toxicity treated?

How does MDMA toxicity affect a pregnancy?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with MDMA toxicity?

Medications

What are the objectives of medical treatment of MDMA toxicity?

Which medications in the drug class Vitamin supplementation are used in the treatment of MDMA Toxicity?

Which medications in the drug class Glucose supplement are used in the treatment of MDMA Toxicity?

Which medications in the drug class GI decontamination are used in the treatment of MDMA Toxicity?

Which medications in the drug class Diuretic are used in the treatment of MDMA Toxicity?

Which medications in the drug class Antihypertensives are used in the treatment of MDMA Toxicity?

Which medications in the drug class Osmotic diuretics are used in the treatment of MDMA Toxicity?

Which medications in the drug class Alkalinizing agent are used in the treatment of MDMA Toxicity?

Which medications in the drug class Barbiturates are used in the treatment of MDMA Toxicity?

Which medications in the drug class Benzodiazepines are used in the treatment of MDMA Toxicity?

Follow-up

Where should patients be referred following treatment for MDMA toxicity?

When is inpatient treatment indicated for MDMA toxicity?

When is patient transfer considered in the treatment of MDMA toxicity?

What are the possible complications of MDMA toxicity?

What is included in patient education about MDMA toxicity?