Frontal Bone Fracture Management in the ED Medication

Updated: Mar 02, 2022
  • Author: Thomas Widell, MD; Chief Editor: Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

When airway control is needed, rapid-sequence induction is often the preferred method. Rapid-sequence induction utilizes medications to induce unconsciousness and muscle paralysis to facilitate intubation. A cricothyroidotomy kit should be at the bedside in case problems arise.

Medication for pain control is appropriate, including NSAIDs, narcotics, or local anesthetics.

Use of prophylactic antibiotics is controversial when a CSF leak is identified. This decision is usually left to the discretion of the specialist assuming care of the patient.

In cases of open wounds, administer tetanus toxoid if the patient is not up-to-date.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs)

Class Summary

These drugs are used most commonly for relief of mild to moderately severe pain. Effects of NSAIDs in the treatment of pain tend to be patient specific, yet ibuprofen is usually the drug of choice (DOC) for initial therapy. Other options include flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen.

Ibuprofen (Ibuprin, Advil, Motrin)

Usual DOC for treatment of mild to moderately severe pain, if no contraindications. Inhibits inflammatory reactions and pain, probably by decreasing activity of enzyme cyclooxygenase, which inhibits prostaglandin synthesis.

Naproxen (Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn)

Relieves mild to moderately severe pain. Inhibits inflammatory reactions and pain by decreasing activity of enzyme cyclooxygenase, which decreases prostaglandin synthesis.

Ketoprofen (Oruvail, Orudis, Actron)

For relief of mild to moderately severe pain and inflammation.

Administer small dosages initially to patients with small bodies, older persons, and those with renal or liver disease.

Doses higher than 75 mg do not increase therapeutic effects.

Administer high doses with caution; closely observe the patient for response.

Flurbiprofen (Ansaid, Ocufen)

Provides analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. May inhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme, inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis.

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Analgesics

Class Summary

Pain control is essential to quality care. It ensures patient comfort, promotes pulmonary toilet, and aids physical therapy regimens. Many analgesics have sedating properties that benefit patients who have sustained fractures.

Acetaminophen and codeine (Tylenol #3)

Drug combination indicated for treatment of mild to moderately severe pain.

Hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen (Vicodin ES)

Drug combination indicated for relief of moderately severe to severe pain.

Oxycodone and acetaminophen (Percocet)

Drug combination indicated for relief of moderately severe to severe pain. DOC for aspirin-hypersensitive patients.

Morphine sulfate (Duramorph, Astramorph, MS Contin)

DOC for narcotic analgesia because of its reliable and predictable effects, safety, and ease of reversibility with naloxone.

Morphine sulfate administered IV may be dosed in a number of ways and commonly is titrated until desired effect is obtained.

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Immunoglobulins

Class Summary

Patients who may not have been immunized against Clostridium tetani products should receive tetanus immune globulin.

Tetanus immune globulin (TIG)

For passive immunization of any person with a wound that may be contaminated with tetanus spores.

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Toxoid

Class Summary

This agent is used for tetanus immunization. Booster injection in previously immunized individuals is recommended to prevent this potentially lethal syndrome.

Tetanus toxoid adsorbed or fluid

Used to induce active immunity against tetanus in selected patients. Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are the immunizing DOC for most adults and children >7 years of age. Booster doses must be administered to maintain tetanus immunity throughout life.

Pregnant patients should receive only tetanus toxoid, not a diphtheria antigen-containing product.

In children and adults, may be administered into the deltoid or mid-lateral thigh muscles. In infants, preferred site of administration is the mid-thigh laterally.

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