Chloropicrin Poisoning Medication

Updated: Dec 05, 2013
  • Author: Kermit D Huebner, MD, FACEP; Chief Editor: Robert G Darling, MD, FACEP  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

Albuterol and aminophylline may be beneficial in cases involving signs of bronchoconstriction. Use supplemental humidified oxygen in cases of respiratory compromise.

In severe respiratory compromise, ventilatory support is mandatory. If a PaO2 cannot be maintained greater than 60 mm Hg with a fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) less than or equal to 0.6, then add positive end-expiratory pressure in attempts to open previously closed alveoli. No specific drug therapy is available for chloropicrin toxicity.

For methemoglobinemia greater than 10-20%, consider the use of methylene blue. [5]

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Sympathomimetic (adrenergic) agents

Class Summary

These agents relieve reversible bronchospasm by relaxing smooth muscles of the bronchi.

Albuterol (Ventolin)

Stimulates beta-adrenergic receptors. Main effect following oral inhalation is bronchodilation resulting from smooth muscles of bronchial tree. In event of chloropicrin intoxication, use nebulizer route of administration.

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Respiratory smooth muscle relaxant

Class Summary

Aminophylline relieves bronchospasm through smooth muscle relaxation of respiratory tract, thereby increasing flow rates and vital capacity.

Aminophylline (Aminophyllin)

Theophylline compound with ethylenediamine; structurally classified as xanthine derivative. Directly relaxes smooth muscle of respiratory tract.

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Antidotes

Class Summary

This agent is used to reduce methemoglobin.

Methylene blue (Urolene blue)

In reduced form, leukomethylene blue is an electron donor to reduce methemoglobin. Reduction of methylene blue is by NADPH generated by G-6-PD.

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