Lower Eyelid Laxity Blepharoplasty Treatment & Management

Updated: Mar 17, 2016
  • Author: Jefferson K Kilpatrick, MD; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
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Treatment

Surgical Therapy

Many procedures are used to correct lower eyelid laxity, but the following "workhorse" techniques are most commonly used [1] :

  • Pentagonal wedge resection: In this procedure, a pentagonal wedge is resected from the lower lid, and the wound is then closed. The wedge can be located anywhere lateral to the limbus, and several techniques for this procedure have been described. Pentagonal wedge resection shortens the lid in the horizontal plane. The technique is not widely used in cosmetic blepharoplasty because it addresses only one aspect of the pathology, horizontal lid laxity. It frequently changes the normal almond shape of the eye and may cause notching of the lid margin or lateral canthal rounding.
  • Lateral tarsal strip: After performing a lateral canthotomy and an inferior cantholysis, a tarsal strip is fashioned by denuding the epithelium and conjunctival surfaces from the most lateral aspect of the tarsus. Appropriate tightening of the lid is achieved by gauging the amount of tarsus to be resected (if any) and suturing the tarsal stump to the periosteum inside the medial aspect of the lateral orbital rim. This is a very powerful technique for cases of severe laxity or ectropion, but it is seldom the technique of choice in primary cosmetic blepharoplasty because of the resultant lid shortening and the possibility of lateral canthus distortion.
  • Dermal obiculare pennant: This procedure avoids the problems with the lateral tarsal strip procedure by making a pennant-type incision in the lateral canthal skin. The inferior retinaculum and tarsus are deepithelialized and placed through the lateral orbit to reposition the canthus. The technique is used in severe cases of laxity but is not preferred for cosmetic cases because of significant postoperative edema.

The foregoing procedures emphasize function, but for the reasons noted, the cosmetic result is not always ideal. The following procedures allow the surgeon to obtain an acceptable functional and cosmetic result and are therefore the authors' preferred procedures in cosmetic blepharoplasty.

  • Inferior retinacular lateral canthoplasty: Make a small incision in the lateral upper lid crease over the lateral orbital rim. If an upper lid blepharoplasty is being performed, use the lateral aspect of that incision. Identify the inferior retinaculum of the lateral canthus and dissect it away from the superior retinaculum and its attachment to the Whitnall tubercle. Then, reposition it several millimeters higher to the medial aspect of the lateral orbital rim periosteum using a mattress suture.
  • Lateral retinacular resuspension canthoplasty: Perform the procedure as described above, except position the entire lateral canthus superiorly as needed to tighten the lid and to elevate the lateral canthus in situations in which the lateral canthal position is dystopic. This can be accomplished by incising the lateral canthal tendon after the inferior and superior limbs have joined to form a common tendon and repositioning the canthus 2-5 mm superiorly along the inside aspect of the lateral orbital rim as a single unit.
  • Lateral canthopexy: This is a very simple procedure used in lids that need reinforcement but may not need repositioning. The lid is tightened and repositioned by passing a double-armed suture through the lateral canthus and suturing to the medial aspect of the lateral orbital rim periosteum superiorly. The canthus is not divided in this procedure. The distance superiorly is adjusted by adjusting the tension in the knot to achieve the desired tightening and aesthetic position. [2]

With all of the above procedures, careful attention to detail is essential to ensure bilateral symmetry.

A study by Miller indicated that lower lid blepharoplasty using fat repositioning improves pseudoherniation and increases cheek and lower periorbital volume, providing long-term aesthetic improvement of the tear trough and upper cheek. The study included 10 patients and had a mean 12-month follow-up. [3]

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Preoperative Details

Obtain a general medical history.

Note any history of bleeding tendencies or the use of medications that may cause bleeding abnormalities.

For lower lid surgery, note any history of dry eyes or excessive tearing.

Patients with ectropion may have symptoms of corneal irritation or epiphora that warrant treatment.

As with any procedure, informed consent should be obtained. In addition to the standard risks of lower lid blepharoplasty, informed consent for the treatment of lower lid malposition should focus on the risk of asymmetry between the eyes, scarring, scleral show, tearing abnormalities, corneal irritation, and ectropion.

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Intraoperative Details

See Surgical therapy.

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Postoperative Details

In the early postoperative period, treat any potential exposure of the cornea with lubricating drops.

A frost stitch may be used at the termination of surgery to splint the lower lid during healing. This is accomplished by placing a horizontal mattress stitch through the lower lid and securing it to the upper brow with tension directed in a superior vector to counteract any cicatricial pull-down of the lower lid.

Postoperative edema of the conjunctiva may be prolonged. Judicious application of steroid eye drops, limited to a few days, may be helpful.

Most postoperative problems are avoided by careful attention to details of lid position and symmetry at the time of the initial surgery.

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Follow-up

Patients are routinely examined on postoperative days 1, 7, 14, and 28. Patients should be reexamined at 6 months; thereafter, yearly examinations should suffice. Encourage patients to call for an examination if any unusual problems occur in the healing period.

Postoperative photographs often reveal minor lid position problems that are not obvious in a dynamic examination.

Closely monitor the lower lid for any signs of developing ectropion, for scleral show, and for any significant changes in lid contour or position.

By carefully monitoring patients throughout the entire healing period, problems may be identified and corrected early. Surgeons must be critical of their work and must remain vigilant to catch problems early and to continue to improve their technique.

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Complications

Complications of blepharoplasty in general are discussed in other articles. Complications of eyelid repositioning include the following:

  • Lower lid malposition: This is the most common complication of cosmetic blepharoplasty. A study by Griffin et al indicated that although eyelid laxity, middle lamellar scarring, and anterior lamellar shortage have been associated with postblepharoplasty lower eyelid retraction (PBLER), certain other factors play a more significant role in PBLER than has been thought. The study involved 46 patients, all of whom experienced eyelid retraction following primary transcutaneous surgery. The investigators determined that although eyelid laxity and anterior lamellar shortage were common in these patients, so were orbicularis weakness, negative-vector eyelid, and inferior eyelid/orbital volume deficit. Only 17% of eyelids in the study had a significant middle lamellar scar. [4]
  • Scleral show: This most commonly occurs from failure to initially address a lax lid. If no lower lid tightening was performed, one of the previously discussed procedures may be needed to address lid retraction. The correct procedure depends upon the amount of laxity present and the degree of correction desired.
  • Change in shape of the lateral canthal region: Such a shape change commonly occurs because of poor placement of the canthus during the tightening procedure or overcorrection. It may be addressed by redoing the procedure.
  • Lateral canthal dystopia: This may be caused by poor positioning of the canthus or by using the wrong technique. Revision may be necessary after allowing an adequate healing period.
  • Postoperative epiphora: This condition may be caused by edema. Use conservative treatment with observation and/or mild topical steroids. If epiphora persists after allowing time for edema to resolve, it may be due to excess lid laxity or tightness causing malposition of the ductal system. If the postoperative epiphora is due to laxity, a tightening procedure may be indicated; if it is due to excessive tightness, a revision of any tightening procedure performed is indicated.
  • Ectropion due to deficiency of the anterior or middle lamellae: If ectropion does occur, the surgeon must determine the location of the pathology to adequately address it. If the anterior lamella is deficient, skin may be replaced with grafting. This is most often the result of aggressive removal of skin in a subciliary incision. The best treatment is avoidance. Skin should be removed conservatively with the patient's mouth open. Any skin removed may be placed in saline, refrigerated, and used during the first week of the postoperative course as a skin graft if needed to replace deficiencies.
  • Ectropion is due to early formation of cicatrix in the middle lamella: Injection with low-dose steroids (0.1-0.2 mL of 5-mcg/mL triamcinolone acetonide [Kenalog] solution) may be used. Deficiencies of the middle lamellae may be addressed in the late postoperative period. Palatal mucosa, acellular cadaveric dermis (AlloDerm), and/or conchal cartilage grafts are commonly used.
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Outcome and Prognosis

With careful patient selection and judicious use of ancillary procedures to address lower lid laxity, patients should expect a good cosmetic and functional result from lower lid blepharoplasty.

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