Facial Soft Tissue Injuries Medication

Updated: Aug 22, 2018
  • Author: Kyle D Parish, MD; Chief Editor: Craig C Young, MD  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

Not all facial soft-tissue injuries require pharmacotherapy. When used, the goal is to decrease the potential morbidity and mortality and/or reduce the chance for complications.

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Toxoids

Class Summary

Toxoids are used to induce active immunity.

Tetanus toxoid adsorbed or fluid

Induce active immunity against tetanus in selected patients. The immunizing agents of choice for most adults and childrenaged >7 y are the tetanus and diphtheria toxoids. It is necessary to administer booster doses to maintain tetanus immunity throughout life.

Pregnant patients should receive only tetanus toxoid, not a diphtheria antigen–containing product.

In children and adults, tetanus toxoid may be administered into the deltoid or midlateral thigh muscles. In infants, the preferred site is the mid thigh laterally.

Administer dT 0.5 mL IM to patients aged >7 y who have not been immunized within 5 y. Administer tetanus IgG (250 U) at a different site for patients with an incomplete immunization history.

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Immunoglobulins

Class Summary

Immunoglobulins are used for passive immunization, consisting of the administration of immunoglobulin that is pooled from the serum of immunized subjects.

Tetanus immune globulin (TIG)

Induces passive immunization in any person with a wound that might be contaminated with tetanus spores.

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Antibiotics

Class Summary

Antibiotics are not recommended as part of routine wound care, particularly with the increasing number of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Empiric treatment is still recommended for wounds that are at high risk of infection. Large intraoral wounds may require treatment with penicillin. Bite injuries from a cat, dog, or human should be covered with amoxicillin/clavulanate or doxycycline and/or cefuroxime.

Because of a change in resistance patterns, cephalexin and dicloxacillin are no longer recommended for empiric treatment in many areas of the country. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is becoming increasingly problematic in community-acquired infections, and treatment should be based on the community resistance pattern (usually available from local hospitals or infectious disease specialists). When organism sensitivities are unknown, vancomycin should be considered until culture and sensitivity testing can be performed.

Penicillin G benzathine (Bicillin L-A, Permapen)

Interferes with synthesis of cell wall mucopeptide during active multiplication, resulting in bactericidal activity against susceptible microorganisms.

Penicillin VK (Beepen-VK, Betapen-VK, Veetids, Robicillin VK)

Inhibits biosynthesis of cell wall mucopeptide. Bactericidal against sensitive organisms when adequate concentrations are achieved and most effective during the stage of active multiplication. Inadequate concentrations may produce only bacteriostatic effects.

Amoxicillin and clavulanate (Augmentin)

Drug combination treats bacteria that are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. For children aged >3 mo, base the dosing protocol on the amoxicillin content. Because of different ratios of amoxicillin to clavulanic acid in the 250-mg tab (250/125) vs the 250-mg chewable tab (250/62.5), do not use the 250-mg tab until child weighs >40 kg

Doxycycline (Doryx)

Broad-spectrum, synthetically derived bacteriostatic antibiotic in the tetracycline class. Almost completely absorbed, concentrates in bile, and is excreted in urine and feces as a biologically active metabolite in high concentrations.

Inhibits protein synthesis and, thus, bacterial growth by binding to 30S and possibly the 50S ribosomal subunits of susceptible bacteria. May block dissociation of peptidyl t-RNA from ribosomes, causing RNA-dependent protein synthesis to arrest.

Cefuroxime (Zinacef)

Second-generation cephalosporin that maintains gram-positive activity of first-generation cephalosporins; adds activity against Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

Binds to penicillin-binding proteins and inhibits final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis, resulting in cell wall death. The condition of the patient, severity of the infection, and susceptibility of the microorganism determine the proper dose and route of administration. Resists degradation by beta-lactamase.

Vancomycin (Vancocin)

Potent antibiotic directed against gram-positive organisms and active against Enterococcus species. Useful in the treatment of septicemia and skin structure infections. Indicated for patients who are unable to receive or whose infections have not responded to penicillins and cephalosporins or for infections with resistant staphylococci. Use CrCl to adjust the dose in patients diagnosed with renal impairment.

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