Epistaxis Questions & Answers

Updated: May 08, 2020
  • Author: Quoc A Nguyen, MD; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How is epistaxis (nosebleed) categorized?

How common is epistaxis (nosebleed)?

What is the general workup approach to epistaxis (nosebleed)?

What is the general treatment approach to epistaxis (nosebleed)?

What is the anatomy of the nose in reference to epistaxis (nosebleed)?

What causes epistaxis (nosebleed) to occur?

Where does epistaxis (nosebleed) typically originate?

What causes epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How does trauma cause epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How does dry weather cause epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How do drugs cause epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How do septal deviations and spurs cause epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How does inflammation cause epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How do tumors cause epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How do blood dyscrasias cause epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How do vascular abnormalities cause epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How are migraines in children associated with epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How does hypertension cause epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How common are idiopathic cases of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How common is epistaxis (nosebleed)?

What are the age and sex demographics for epistaxis (nosebleed)?

What is the prognosis of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How can epistaxis (nosebleed) be avoided?

What is the self-treatment for minor epistaxis (nosebleed)?

Presentation

What is the relevant history in epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How is epistaxis (nosebleed) due to foreign objects in the nasal cavity characterized?

What medical history and behaviors are relevant in epistaxis (nosebleed)?

Which conditions are associated with severe epistaxis (nosebleed) in children?

Which medications used by patients with epistaxis (nosebleed) should be documented?

How does a clinician prepare for a physical exam in epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How is a nasal exam performed in epistaxis (nosebleed)?

Which conditions can massive epistaxis (nosebleed) mimic?

How is fiberoptic endoscopy performed in epistaxis (nosebleed)?

Why is the skin examined in epistaxis (nosebleed)?

Why are vital signs checked in the physical exam in epistaxis (nosebleed)?

What are the potential complications of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

DDX

Which conditions should be considered in the diagnosis of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Epistaxis?

Workup

When are lab studies indicated in the workup of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

Which lab tests are indicated in the workup of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

Which procedures and imaging studies are used in the workup of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

Treatment

Which procedures and medications are used in the treatment of epistaxis (nosebleed), and how should epistaxis be managed in light of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic?

What is initial treatment for epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How can epistaxis (nosebleed) caused by excessive dryness be prevented?

Which types of cauterization methods are used in the treatment of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

What home care is indicated after cauterization in the treatment of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

What are the best treatments for epistaxis (nosebleed)?

When is nasal packing used in the treatment of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

When should nasal packs used for treatment of epistaxis (nosebleed) be removed?

How is anterior nasal packing performed in the treatment of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How is posterior nasal packing performed in the treatment of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

What are the treatment options for epistaxis (nosebleed) if nasal packing fails?

Which vessels are ligated in the arterial ligation treatment of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How is arterial ligation performed on the external carotid artery in the treatment of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How is arterial ligation performed on the internal maxillary artery in the treatment of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How is arterial ligation performed on the ethmoidal artery in the treatment of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How is embolization used in the treatment of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

What are the management options for epistaxis (nosebleed) associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT)?

What are potential complications of treatment of epistaxis (nosebleed)?

What dietary measures are indicated in epistaxis (nosebleed)?

What activity restrictions are advised for epistaxis (nosebleed)?

How can epistaxis (nosebleed) be prevented?

Which specialist consultations may be indicated in epistaxis (nosebleed)?

What follow-up care is indicated in epistaxis (nosebleed) treated with nasal packing?

Medications

What are the treatment options for epistaxis (nosebleed)?

Which medications in the drug class Cauterizing agents are used in the treatment of Epistaxis?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotic ointments are used in the treatment of Epistaxis?

Which medications in the drug class Anesthetics are used in the treatment of Epistaxis?

Which medications in the drug class Topical vasoconstrictors are used in the treatment of Epistaxis?