Orbital Fractures Questions & Answers

Updated: May 11, 2020
  • Author: Neeraj N Mathur, MBBS, MS, DNB(ENT), MNAMS, FAMS; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are orbital fractures?

What are the types of orbital fractures?

How are orbital fractures diagnosed?

Which medications are used in the treatment of orbital fractures?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of orbital fractures?

What are the goals of treatment for orbital fractures?

What is the prevalence of orbital fractures?

What causes orbital fractures?

What is the pathophysiology of orbital fractures?

What is the role of zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture (ZMC) structures in the pathophysiology of orbital fractures?

What is the role of the zygomatic buttresses in the pathophysiology of orbital fractures?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of orbital fractures?

Which physical findings are characteristic of medial-wall orbital fractures?

How is white-eyed blow-out fracture (WEBOF) diagnosed in the emergency department (ED)?

Which orbital fractures are associated with intracranial injury?

Which clinical history and physical findings are characteristic of orbital apex fractures?

What are the signs and symptoms of cranial nerve injury in orbital fractures?

Which physical findings are characteristic of lateral-wall orbital fractures?

Which physical findings are characteristic of NOE orbital fractures?

How are orbital fractures treated?

What are the indications for surgical intervention to treat orbital fractures?

What is the timing for surgical intervention to treat orbital fractures?

What is the anatomy of the orbit relevant to orbital fractures?

What is the anatomy of the infraorbital nerve relevant to orbital fractures?

What is the anatomy of the superior orbital rim relevant to orbital fracture?

What are contraindications to surgical intervention for orbital fractures?

Workup

What is the role of lab tests in the workup of orbital fractures?

What is the role of CT scanning in the diagnosis of orbital fractures?

What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of orbital fractures?

What is the role of radiography in the diagnosis of orbital fractures?

What is the role of angiography in the diagnosis of orbital fractures?

Which ocular tests are performed in the diagnosis of orbital fractures?

Treatment

What is the role of medical therapy in the treatment of orbital fracture?

What steps in the surgical repair of orbital and maxillofacial fractures?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of orbital fractures?

What is included in preoperative care for orbital fractures?

What is the role of forced duction testing in the preoperative evaluation of orbital fractures?

Which approaches are used for the surgical repair of orbital floor fractures?

What is a transcutaneous approach to surgical repair of orbital fractures?

How is dissection performed in the surgical repair of orbital fractures?

What is the transmaxillary endoscopic approach to the surgical repair of orbital fractures?

What is the modified transnasal endoscopic approach to the surgical repair of orbital fractures?

How it the surgical repair of trapdoor orbital fractures performed?

How is the surgical repair of blow-out orbital fractures performed?

What is the role of implants in the treatment of orbital fractures?

What is included in postoperative care following surgery for orbital fractures?

What is included in the long-term follow-up following treatment of orbital fractures?

What are the possible intraoperative complications of orbital fracture surgery?

What are the possible postoperative complications of orbital fracture surgery?

What is the prognosis of orbital fractures?

What treatments for orbital fractures are being investigated?