Mold Allergy Questions & Answers

Updated: Sep 18, 2017
  • Author: Shih-Wen Huang, MD; Chief Editor: Harumi Jyonouchi, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is mold allergy?

What is the functional biology of fungi relevant to mold allergy?

How is the prevalence of fungi in the air assessed and at what level do spores cause mold allergies?

Which fungal species cause allergies in humans?

What is the pathophysiology of mold-related allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis?

What is the pathophysiology of mold-related allergic asthma?

What is the pathophysiology of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

What is the immunologic evolution of mold allergy?

What are the determinants of mold allergy?

Which pathogen-derived products may be therapeutic for mold allergy?

What has been learned from animal models of mold allergic airway diseases?

What is the pathophysiology of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)?

What is the pathophysiology of mold-related non-aspergillus allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

What is the pathophysiology of mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?

What is the pathophysiology of mold-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP)?

What is the prevalence of mold allergies in the US?

What is the global prevalence of mold allergies?

What is the mortality and morbidity associated with mold allergy?

What are the racial predilections of mold allergy?

What are the sexual predilections of mold allergy?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of mold allergy?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of mold-related allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of mold-related allergic asthma?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM), and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

Which mold-related allergic fungal diseases have been reported in case studies?

Which physical findings are characteristic of mold allergy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of mold-related allergic rhinitis and/or allergic conjunctivitis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of mold-related allergic asthma?

Which physical findings are characteristic of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?

What causes mold allergy?

DDX

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of mold-related allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis?

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of mold-related allergic asthma with wheezing?

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of mold-related allergic asthmas with cough without wheezing?

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of mold-related allergic asthma with wheezing or cough?

What conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis?

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis?

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of mold allergy?

What are the differential diagnoses for Mold Allergy?

Workup

What is the role of skin testing in the workup of mold-related allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis?

Which lab studies are used in the diagnosis of mold allergy?

What is the role of radioallergosorbent testing (RAST) in the workup of mold-related allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis?

What is the role of nasal cytology in the workup of mold-related allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis?

What is the role of skin test or radioallergosorbent testing (RAST) in the workup of mold-related allergic asthma?

What is the role of PFTs in the workup of mold-related allergic asthma?

What is the role of allergy skin test or radioallergosorbent testing (RAST) in the workup of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

What is the role of nasal cytology in the workup of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

What is the role of fungal culture in the workup of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

What is the role of total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the workup of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

What is the role of precipitin test in the workup of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

What is the role of skin test or radioallergosorbent testing (RAST) in the workup of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

What is the role of precipitin test in the workup of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

What is the role of total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the workup of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

What is the role of sputum analysis in the workup of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

Which eosinophilia count is characteristic of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

What is the role of BAL in the workup of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

What is the role of skin testing in the workup of mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?

What is the role of a precipitin test in the workup of mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?

What is the role of the assay for cell-mediated immunity in the workup of mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?

What is the role of challenge testing in the workup of mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?

How is disease activity monitored in mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of mold- related allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of mold- related allergic asthma?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of mold- related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of mold- related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of mold- related extrinsic allergic alveolitis?

What is the role of PFTs in the workup of mold allergy?

What is the role of BAL in the workup of mold allergy?

What is the role of rhinoscopy in the workup of mold allergy?

What is the role of bronchoscopy in the workup of mold allergy?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of mold-related allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of mold-related allergic asthma?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?

How is mold-related allergic asthma staged?

How are mold allergies staged?

How are mold-related allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis staged?

How is mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) staged?

How are mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) staged?

How is mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) staged?

Treatment

How are mold allergies treated?

What is the role of drug treatment for mold allergy?

What is the role of medications in the treatment of mold-related allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis?

What is the role of medications in the treatment of mold-related allergic asthma?

What is the role of medications in the treatment of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

What is the role of medications in the treatment of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

What is the role of medications in the treatment of mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?

What is the role of immunotherapy in the treatment of mold allergy?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of mold allergy?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with mold allergy?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of mold allergy?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of mold allergy?

Medications

What is the role of medications in mold allergy treatment?

Which medications in the drug class Anticholinergic nasal sprays and oral inhalers are used in the treatment of Mold Allergy?

Which medications in the drug class Monoclonal antibodies are used in the treatment of Mold Allergy?

Which medications in the drug class Theophylline derivatives are used in the treatment of Mold Allergy?

Which medications in the drug class Leukotriene antagonists/5-lipoxygenase inhibitors are used in the treatment of Mold Allergy?

Which medications in the drug class Systemic corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Mold Allergy?

Which medications in the drug class Inhaled long-acting bronchodilator/corticosteroid combinations are used in the treatment of Mold Allergy?

Which medications in the drug class Bronchodilators, short term are used in the treatment of Mold Allergy?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroid oral inhalers are used in the treatment of Mold Allergy?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroid nasal sprays are used in the treatment of Mold Allergy?

Which medications in the drug class Antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer eye drops are used in the treatment of Mold Allergy?

Which medications in the drug class Mast-cell stabilizers are used in the treatment of Mold Allergy?

Which medications in the drug class Antihistamine nasal sprays are used in the treatment of Mold Allergy?

Which medications in the drug class Antihistamines with decongestants, oral are used in the treatment of Mold Allergy?

Which medications in the drug class Antihistamines, oral are used in the treatment of Mold Allergy?

Follow-up

What is included in the monitoring of mold-related allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis?

What is included in the monitoring of mold-related allergic asthma?

What is included in the monitoring of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

What is included in the monitoring of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

What is included in the monitoring of mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?

When is inpatient care indicated in the treatment of mold-related allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis?

When is inpatient care indicated in the treatment of mold-related allergic asthma?

When is inpatient care indicated in the treatment of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

When is inpatient care indicated in the treatment of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

When is inpatient care indicated in the treatment of mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?

Which medications are used in the treatment of mold allergies?

Which medications are used in the treatment of mold-related allergic rhinitis?

Which medications are used in the treatment of mold-related allergic conjunctivitis?

Which medications are used in the treatment of mold-related allergic asthma?

Which medications are used in the treatment of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

Which medications are used in the treatment of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

Which medications are used in the treatment of mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?

When is patient transfer considered for the treatment of mold allergies?

How are mold allergies prevented?

What are the possible complications of mold-related allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis?

What are the possible complications of mold-related allergic asthma?

What are the possible complications of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

What are the possible complications of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

What are the possible complications of mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?

What is the prognosis of mold-related allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis?

What is the prognosis of mold-related allergic asthma?

What is the prognosis of mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

What is the prognosis of mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

What is the prognosis of mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?

What is included in patient education about mold allergy?

What is included in patient education about mold-related allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis?

What is included in patient education about mold-related allergic asthma?

What is included in patient education about mold-related allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS)?

What is included in patient education about mold-related allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM)?

What is included in patient education about mold-related extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)?