Congenital Mitral Stenosis Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Nov 17, 2021
  • Author: M Silvana Horenstein, MD; Chief Editor: Stuart Berger, MD  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

Important considerations

It is important that clinicians diagnose not only the primary problem but also any additional congenital cardiovascular abnormalities.

Refer patients who demonstrate increasing symptoms, especially those of congestive heart failure.

Special concerns in pregnant women

Patients who are pregnant have a higher risk of developing pulmonary edema because of the increased intravascular volume. For this reason, they should be closely monitored.

Asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients may only require close observation, but severely symptomatic patients may require urgent surgical intervention.

Pregnant women who require anticoagulation because of a prosthetic mitral valve should receive heparin, which does not cross the placental barrier. They should not receive warfarin because of its teratogenic effects and fetal wastage.

Pregnant women with underlying heart disease require antibiotic prophylaxis with ampicillin and gentamicin or with amoxicillin if they undergo potentially bacteremic procedures.

Of note, cesarean delivery or uncomplicated abdominal delivery are not indications for antibiotic prophylaxis.

Differential Diagnoses