Tetralogy of Fallot With Pulmonary Atresia Medication

Updated: Nov 22, 2015
  • Author: Michael D Pettersen, MD; Chief Editor: Howard S Weber, MD, FSCAI  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

Newborns with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia (TOF-PA) may require the ductus arteriosus (DA) as the main source of pulmonary blood flow. A prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) (Alprostadil) infusion maintains patency of the ductus.

Infants with multiple systemic pulmonary collaterals may develop symptomatic heart failure requiring medical therapy.

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Prostaglandins

Class Summary

Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) (Alprostadil) is a vasodilating agent that also promotes dilatation of the ductus arteriosus (DA) in infants with ductal-dependent cardiac abnormalities.

Alprostadil IV (Prostin VR Pediatric Injection)

Alprostadil is first-line palliative therapy to temporarily maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus (DA) before surgery. This agent is beneficial in infants who have congenital defects that restrict pulmonary or systemic blood flow and who depend on a patent DA for adequate oxygenation and lower body perfusion. Alprostadil produces vasodilation and increases cardiac output. Each 1-mL ampule contains 500 mcg/mL.

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Diuretic agents

Class Summary

Diuretic agents promote excretion of water and electrolytes by the kidneys. These drugs are used to treat heart failure or hepatic, renal, or pulmonary disease when sodium and water retention results in edema or ascites. Children who have congestive heart failure (CHF) symptoms often require multiple diuretics for effective control.

Furosemide (Lasix)

Furosemide increases excretion of water by interfering with the chloride-binding cotransport system, which in turn inhibits sodium and chloride reabsorption in the ascending loop of Henle and distal renal tubule. Individualize the drug dose to the patient. Depending on the clinical response, administer adult doses at increments of 20-40 mg, no sooner than 6-8 hours after the previous dose, until the desired diuresis occurs. When treating infants, titrate with 1-mg/kg/dose increments, until a satisfactory effect is achieved.

Spironolactone (Aldactone)

Spironolactone is used for management of edema resulting from excessive aldosterone excretion. This agent competes with aldosterone for receptor sites in the distal renal tubules, increasing water excretion while retaining potassium and hydrogen ions.

Hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide)

Hydrochlorothiazide inhibits the reabsorption of sodium in the distal tubules, causing an increased excretion of sodium and water, as well as potassium and hydrogen ions.

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Inotropic agents

Class Summary

Positive inotropic agents increase the force of contraction of the myocardium and are used to treat acute and chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). Poor ventricular function may necessitate the use of inotropic medications.

Digoxin (Lanoxin)

Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside with direct inotropic effects and indirect effects on the cardiovascular system. This agent acts directly on cardiac muscle, increasing myocardial systolic contractions. Indirect actions result in increased carotid sinus nerve activity and enhanced sympathetic withdrawal for any given increase in mean arterial pressure.

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