Pediatric Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 20, 2018
  • Author: Maggie A Wilkes, MD; Chief Editor: Caroly Pataki, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What are the types of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What are the diagnostic criteria for predominantly inattentive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What are the diagnostic criteria for predominantly hyperactive/impulsive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Which diagnostic criteria are associated with all types of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Which tests are useful in the diagnosis of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What are the 2 main treatment strategies for pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

How does the attention deficit component of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifest?

What are the 3 forms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Which neurologic/executive functions are disrupted in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

How long has ADHD been recognized as a medical diagnosis?

Which areas of the brain are responsible for executive function and what changes in those areas manifest as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What is the role of neural correlates that mediate response inhibition deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Which neurotransmitters are targeted by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications?

What differences in brain structure can be observed in children who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with children who do not have ADHD?

What is the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What is the prevalence of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its comorbidities in the US?

How does the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the US compare with the prevalence in other countries?

What factors influence the morbidity of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) more common in in boys or in girls?

How does pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) evolve over time and into adulthood?

Presentation

Which diagnostic criteria are used for pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What are the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for inattentive pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What are the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for hyperactive/impulsive pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Which diagnostic criteria are applicable to all types of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) other than inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity?

Which medications and supplements may have negative interactions with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related medications?

Which medical conditions and treatments may have negative interactions with medications used to manage attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What psychiatric comorbidities are associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What behavioral, social, and family history inquiries should be made in the evaluation of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What is the role of a physical exam in children presenting with pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Which assessments are useful in monitoring for adverse effects of medications used to treat pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What is the primary cause of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and which factors are believed to contribute to it?

What role does genetics play in pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What role do environmental factors play in the etiology of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Pediatric Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?

Workup

What is the role of liver function tests in the workup of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and when are they indicated?

What is the relationship between the use of methylphenidate to treat pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and blood dyscrasias?

When is drug screening recommended in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Are lab and imaging studies or procedures indicated in the diagnosis of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Which psychometric and educational tests are useful in the diagnosis of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What is the Neuropsychiatric EEG-Based Assessment Aid (NEBA) System and how is it used in the diagnosis of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Treatment

What are the main components of the treatment strategy for pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What role do teachers have in the treatment of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What psychotherapeutic options may be beneficial in the treatment of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

When and how often are consultations necessary in the treatment of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

When is consultation unnecessary in the management of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

When is referral to an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) specialist necessary in the management of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What changes in medication treatment efficacy merit a consultation with an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) specialist or psychiatrist?

When should a patient being treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) be referred to a specialist or specialty clinic for drug rehabilitation?

What role does diet play in the management of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What role does physical activity play in the treatment of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Medications

Is there a standard protocol for the use of stimulant medications in the treatment of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What factors should be considered when converting from one medication to another in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What is the conversion ratio for adjusting methylphenidate preparations in pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What is the conversion ratio for adjusting extended-release (XR) mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What is the conversion ratio when switching from dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine Spansule) immediate release (IR) to controlled-release (CR) in the treatment of in pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What are the common conversion ratios for methylphenidate osmotic-release oral system (OROS) tablets to other preparations of methylphenidate (LA, CD, ER) in pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What is the conversion ratio when switching from methylphenidate immediate release (IR) or LA to the transdermal patch in the treatment of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

How is lisdexamfetamine dosing converted in the treatment of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

What are the cardiovascular risks of psychostimulants in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Does methylphenidate cause any adverse effects?

Is a chewable form of methylphenidate available for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Which psychostimulants are FDA approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children?

Is divalproex effective in reducing aggressive behavior in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

How safe and effective is atomoxetine (Strattera) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Are antidepressants and alpha-agonists safe in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Do attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications increase risk of cardiovascular events in young and middle-aged adults?

Is clonidine extended-release (Kapvay) used to treat pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Is modafinil (Provigil) effective in treating the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms?

Is modafinil used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Which medications in the drug class Alpha2-adrenergic Agonists are used in the treatment of Pediatric Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?

Which medications in the drug class Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are used in the treatment of Pediatric Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?

Which medications in the drug class Antidepressants are used in the treatment of Pediatric Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?

Which medications in the drug class Stimulants are used in the treatment of Pediatric Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?