Autism Spectrum Disorder Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 18, 2020
  • Author: James Robert Brasic, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Caroly Pataki, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What are the signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the focus of the physical exam for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the DSM-5 definition of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which tests are performed in the workup of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which imaging studies are performed in the workup of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What types of interventions are used in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which nonpharmacologic therapies are used in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which medications are used in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

When does autism spectrum disorder (ASD) typically present?

What are motion anomalies in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What causes autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

How is autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosed?

How is autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treated?

What is the role of neural anomalies in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of glutathione (GSH) in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of metabolic anomalies in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of faulty parenting in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of obstetric complications in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of fetal exposure to infectious agents in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of toxins in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of parental age in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of vaccines in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What are the global trends in the incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the US prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the global prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which patient groups have the highest prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the prognosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What are the common comorbidities of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is included in patient education about autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What steps should be taken when obtaining informed consent from patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Where can patient education resources on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) be found?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

How common is developmental regression in autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of protodeclarative pointing in predicting a later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which responses to environmental stimuli are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which types of social interactions are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which pain responses are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which speech development findings are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which types of play are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

How do children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) react to febrile illness?

What is the Autism Screening Checklist?

How are children screened for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which body movement findings are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which physical findings of the head and hands are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

How are movements assessed in the physical exam for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

How are stereotypies in the physical exam for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which self-injurious behaviors are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of physical abuse in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of sexual abuse in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

How prevalent is autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among siblings?

DDX

What are the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Why should patients be referred to autism specialists for a diagnostic evaluation for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which screening tests are used to in the diagnostic evaluation for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What are cultural considerations when performing a diagnostic evaluation for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children older than 30 months?

What are the differential diagnoses for Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Workup

How are subtypes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) differentiated?

What is the role of metabolic tests in the workup of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of neuroimaging in the workup of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

When is electroencephalography indicated in the workup of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of psychophysiologic assessment in the workup of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of polysomnography in the workup of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of genetic tests in the workup of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of diffusion tensor imaging in the workup of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of PET scanning in the workup of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of SPECT scanning in the workup of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of electroencephalography in the workup of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Treatment

How is autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treated?

When is inpatient psychiatric care indicated for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of special education in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which types of speech, occupational and physical therapies are used in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of CBT in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of family therapy in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the efficacy of medications for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of SSRIs in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

How is serotonin syndrome treatment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What are the possible adverse effects of medications used in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of secretin therapy in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the role of intranasal oxytocin in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Guidelines

What are the AACAP guidelines on the assessment and treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Which medications in the drug class Alpha-2-adrenergic agonists are used in the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Which medications in the drug class Stimulants are used in the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Which medications in the drug class SSRI Antidepressants are used in the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Which medications in the drug class Second-Generation Antipsychotics are used in the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder?