Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Questions & Answers

Updated: Jul 03, 2019
  • Author: William H Lamb, MD, MBBS, FRCP(Edin), FRCP, FRCPCH; Chief Editor: Sasigarn A Bowden, MD  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

What is pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the signs and symptoms of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of blood glucose tests in the diagnosis of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the ADA diagnostic criteria for pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of glycated hemoglobin measurement in the diagnosis of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

How is glycemic control used to treat pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of insulin therapy in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) treatment?

What are the goals for dietary management of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of exercise in the treatment of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the types of pediatric diabetes mellitus (DM)?

How is hypoglycemia managed in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What causes hyperglycemia in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

How is injection-site hypertrophy prevented in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the progression of diabetic nephropathy in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Which complications of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are related to peripheral and autonomic neuropathy?

What are the macrovascular complications of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Which autoimmune diseases are associated with pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

How does pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) affect joint mobility?

What is the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the pathophysiology of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the pathophysiology of hypoglycemia in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What causes pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Which environmental factors increase the risk for pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the chemical causes of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Which conditions are associated with pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the prevalence of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in the US?

What is the global prevalence of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the racial predilections of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the sexual predilections of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the signs and symptoms of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in infants and toddlers?

How does the prevalence of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) vary by age?

What is the prognosis of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the mortality rates for pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the acute complications of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the long-term complications of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the autoimmune-related complications of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Which strategies may be used in educating patients about pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Where can patient sources about pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) be found?

Presentation

What are the common signs and symptoms of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the symptoms of hyperglycemia in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the symptoms of glycosuria in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the symptoms of polydipsia in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

How is weight loss characterized in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

How is malaise characterized in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are symptoms of ketoacidosis in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the signs of impaired immunity in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of diabetic retinopathy in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

DDX

How is maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) differentiated from pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of urine glucose testing in the workup of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of urine ketone testing in the workup of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of islet cell antibody testing in the workup of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of thyroid function tests in the workup of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of antigliadin antibody testing in the workup of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of lipid profiles in the workup of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of urinary albumin testing in the workup of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of renal function tests in the workup of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of blood glucose tests in the workup of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of HbA1c testing in the workup of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the ADA and EASD recommendations for the use of HbA1c testing for the diagnosis of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the efficacy of HbA1c measurement for the diagnosis of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of microalbuminuria testing in the workup of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of an oral glucose tolerance test in the workup of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Treatment

How is pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) treated?

When is inpatient care indicated in the treatment of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

How is pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) treated during pregnancy?

What is the role of probiotic supplementation in the treatment of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of dietary modification in the treatment of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of continuous glucose monitoring in the treatment of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is the role of an artificial pancreas in the treatment of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Guidelines

What are the ADA treatment guidelines for pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What is contained in the 2018 ADA position statement on pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are the ISPAD clinical practice consensus guidelines on diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications in children and adolescents with diabetes?

What are the ISPAD clinical practice consensus guidelines on glycemic control targets and glucose monitoring in children, adolescents, and young adults with diabetes?

Medications

What is the role of insulin in the treatment of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Which insulin injection regimens are used in the treatment of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

What are considerations when prescribing insulin for the treatment of pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?

Which medications in the drug class Antidiabetics, Insulins are used in the treatment of Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?