Frostbite Questions & Answers

Updated: Jul 29, 2019
  • Author: Bobak Zonnoor , MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is frostbite?

What is the pathophysiology of frostbite?

What are the pathophysiologic mechanisms of frostbite injury?

What are the phases of a frostbite injury cascade?

What is the role of reperfusion and ischemia in the pathogenesis of frostbite?

What are the zones of frostbite injury?

What are the risk factors for frostbite?

What causes frostbite?

What is the prevalence of frostbite in the US?

What is the global prevalence of frostbite?

How does the prevalence of frostbite vary by age?

What are the sexual predilections of frostbite?

What are the racial predilections of frostbite?

What is the prognosis of frostbite?

What are favorable prognostic indicators in patients with frostbite?

What are the poor prognostic indicators in patients with frostbite?

What are the long-term sequelae of frostbite?

What should be included in patient education about frostbite?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of frostbite?

Which physical findings are characteristic of frostbite?

What are the characteristics of first-degree frostbite?

What are the characteristics of second-degree frostbite?

What are the characteristics of third-degree frostbite?

What are the characteristics of fourth-degree frostbite?

What are the characteristics of a superficial frostbite injury?

What are the characteristics of a deep frostbite injury?

Which physical findings are characteristic of a postrewarming frostbite injury?

What are the possible complications of frostbite?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of frostbite?

What are the differential diagnoses for Frostbite?

Workup

Which studies are performed in the workup of frostbite?

What is the role of lab testing in the diagnosis of frostbite?

What is the role of radiography and angiography in the diagnosis of frostbite?

What is the role of scintigraphy and bone scans in the diagnosis of frostbite?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of frostbite?

What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of frostbite?

Treatment

How is frostbite treated?

What is included in the field management of frostbite?

What is the role of rewarming in the treatment of frostbite?

What is included in the postrewarming treatment of frostbite?

What is the role of pharmacologic therapy in the treatment of frostbite?

What other ancillary modalities may be helpful but have not been tested in well-controlled human trials relative to frostbite?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of frostbite?

What is the role of skin grafting in the treatment of frostbite?

What is the role of amputation in the treatment of frostbite?

What is the role of surgical sympathectomy in the treatment of frostbite?

What is the role of pressure or occlusive dressings in the treatment of frostbite?

What is included in inpatient care for frostbite?

How is frostbite prevented?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with frostbite?

What are the long-term surgical options for frostbite?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of patients with frostbite?

Medications

What is the goal of medical treatment for frostbite?

Which medications in the drug class Vaccines, Inactivated, Bacterial are used in the treatment of Frostbite?

Which medications in the drug class Immune Globulins are used in the treatment of Frostbite?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Frostbite?

Which medications in the drug class Topical Skin Products are used in the treatment of Frostbite?

Which medications in the drug class Opioid Analgesics are used in the treatment of Frostbite?

Which medications in the drug class Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are used in the treatment of Frostbite?