Pediatric Imperforate Anus (Anorectal Malformation) Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 30, 2019
  • Author: Nelson G Rosen, MD, FACS, FAAP; Chief Editor: Carmen Cuffari, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are anorectal malformations?

What is the embryogenesis of anorectal malformations?

What causes anorectal malformations?

What is the US prevalence of anorectal malformations?

What are the racial and sexual predilections of anorectal malformations?

At what age are anorectal malformations typically diagnosed?

What is the prognosis of anorectal malformations?

What is the morbidity and mortality associated with anorectal malformations?

What are the possible complications following surgery to correct anorectal malformations?

Presentation

How are anorectal malformations diagnosed?

Which physical findings are characteristic of anorectal malformations?

Workup

What is the role of lab tests in the workup of anorectal malformations?

What is the role of anorectal manometry in the workup of anorectal malformations?

What is the role of radiography in the workup of anorectal malformations?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of anorectal malformations?

What is the role of spinal imaging in the workup of anorectal malformations?

What is the role of augmented-pressure distal colostography in the workup of anorectal malformations?

What is the role of voiding cystourethrography or micturating cystourethrography in the workup of anorectal malformations?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of anorectal malformations?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of anorectal malformations?

How are anorectal malformations classified?

What is perineal fistula?

What is vestibular fistula?

What is cloaca?

What is bulbar urethral fistula?

What is prostatic urethral fistula?

What is bladder-neck fistula?

What is absent fistula?

What is cloacal exstrophy?

Treatment

Which specialists should be included on a multidisciplinary team to treat anorectal malformations?

How are anorectal malformations treated?

What is included in postoperative care following a colostomy to treat anorectal malformations?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of anorectal malformations?

What is the role of neonatal colostomy in the treatment of anorectal malformations?

How is neonatal pull-through performed for the treatment of anorectal malformations?

How is posterior sagittal pull-through with colostomy performed for the treatment of anorectal malformations?

What is the procedure for closing colostomy for the treatment of anorectal malformations?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with anorectal malformations?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of anorectal malformations?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of anorectal malformations?

What are the risks of primary repair of anorectal malformations with colostomy?

What is the ideal colostomy position in children with an anorectal malformation?

What causes intestinal perforation in children with anorectal malformations?

What are the possible severe complications of anorectal malformation correction?

What causes stenosis following anorectal malformation correction?

What are the possible complications of undrained hydrocolpos in girls with cloaca?

How is constipation prevented in children with anorectal malformations?

How is incontinence managed in children with anorectal malformations?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of anorectal malformations?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of anorectal malformations?

Which perioperative medications are used in the treatment of anorectal malformations?