Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 14, 2019
  • Author: Steven M Schwarz, MD, FAAP, FACN, AGAF; Chief Editor: Carmen Cuffari, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the symptoms of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the signs and symptoms of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How is pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) diagnosed?

What are signs of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which procedures are used in the workup of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which imaging studies are used to evaluate pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which studies are used in the evaluation of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the treatment goals in pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What conservative measures are used in treating pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What dietary measures can benefit older children with pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which drugs are used in pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the goal of surgical antireflux procedures in the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the clinical background of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How is gastroesophageal reflux classified?

What are patient education resources for pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the risk factors for pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What anatomic factors predispose to pediatric gastroesophageal reflux?

What factors predispose to pediatric gastroesophageal reflux?

How can chronic lower esophageal sphincter (LES) laxity lead to pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How can transient lower esophageal relaxations lead to pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How can a fluid diet cause pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of esophageal clearance in pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of gastric capacity in pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the relationship between pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and respiratory symptoms?

What other conditions are associated with pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the age-related demographics of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How common is pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the US?

What is the prognosis of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How do strictures occur in pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the implication of Barrett esophagus in the prognosis of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Presentation

What causes the symptoms of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are common signs and symptoms of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) associated with pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the most common symptom of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the relationship between pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and respiratory tract disease?

What are the physical signs of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

DDX

What are the indications for additional evaluation when vomiting is the primary complaint in pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which conditions should be considered in the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux?

What are the differential diagnoses for Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux?

Workup

What is the basis of the diagnosis for most cases of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of manometry in the workup of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in the workup of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What are the histologic findings in pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of upper GI imaging in the workup of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of gastric scintiscan in the workup of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of esophagography in the workup of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of intraesophageal pH probe monitoring in the workup of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of intraluminal esophageal electrical impedance (EEI) in the workup of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Treatment

What is the role of conservative and pharmacologic therapy in the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

When is surgery indicated in the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of intragastric feeding in the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Which specialist consultations are recommended in the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

How is patient positioning used in the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What dietary measures are recommended for the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the role of drug therapy in the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the goal of medical therapy in pediatric gastroesophageal reflux?

When is surgery indicated in the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

When is gastrostomy indicated in the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

What is the goal of surgery in the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

Medications

How long does it take for a therapeutic response to treatment for gastroesophageal reflux?

Which medications in the drug class Proton Pump Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux?

Which medications in the drug class Histamine H2 Antagonists are used in the treatment of Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux?

Which medications in the drug class Antacids are used in the treatment of Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux?